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Microarray and Molecular Analyses of the Azole Resistance Mechanism in Candida glabrata Oropharyngeal Isolates▿

By Huei-Fung Tsai, Lindsay R. Sammons, Xiaozhen Zhang, Sara D. Suffis, Qin Su, Timothy G. Myers, Kieren A. Marr and John E. Bennett

Abstract

DNA microarrays were used to analyze Candida glabrata oropharyngeal isolates from seven hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients whose isolates developed azole resistance while the recipients received fluconazole prophylaxis. Transcriptional profiling of the paired isolates revealed 19 genes upregulated in the majority of resistant isolates compared to their paired susceptible isolates. All seven resistant isolates had greater than 2-fold upregulation of C. glabrata PDR1 (CgPDR1), a master transcriptional regulator of the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) network, and all seven resistant isolates showed upregulation of known CgPDR1 target genes. The altered transcriptome can be explained in part by the observation that all seven resistant isolates had acquired a single nonsynonymous mutation in their CgPDR1 open reading frame. Four mutations occurred in the regulatory domain (L280P, L344S, G348A, and S391L) and one in the activation domain (G943S), while two mutations (N764I and R772I) occurred in an undefined region. Association of azole resistance and the CgPDR1 mutations was investigated in the same genetic background by introducing the CgPDR1 sequences from one sensitive isolate and five resistant isolates into a laboratory azole-hypersusceptible strain (Cgpdr1 strain) via integrative transformation. The Cgpdr1 strain was restored to wild-type fluconazole susceptibility when transformed with CgPDR1 from the susceptible isolate but became resistant when transformed with CgPDR1 from the resistant isolates. However, despite the identical genetic backgrounds, upregulation of CgPDR1 and CgPDR1 target genes varied between the five transformants, independent of the domain locations in which the mutations occurred. In summary, gain-of-function mutations in CgPDR1 contributed to the clinical azole resistance, but different mutations had various degrees of impact on the CgPDR1 target genes

Topics: Mechanisms of Resistance
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:2916311
Provided by: PubMed Central
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