National Longitudinal data of thoracolumbar fracture incidence, trends or mortality rates are lacking. The correlation between admissions and operations of thoracolumbar vertebral fractures has not been investigated. The aim of our nationwide population-based epidemiological study was to analyse the incidence, admissions, operations, and case fatality rate among patients with thoracolumbar vertebral fractures admitted to hospital in Sweden. The Swedish Hospital Discharge Register (SHDR) and the Cause of Death Register (CDR) were linked to determine the incidence of surgical interventions, trends, characteristics of the patients, and case fatality rate for thoracolumbar vertebral fractures based on comprehensive national data. The annual incidence of thoracolumbar fractures was on average 30 per 100,000 inhabitants and did not change considerably during the study period. Among patients younger than 60 years of age the annual incidence was 13 per 100,000 and was twice as high in men compared to women. The proportion operated on was 15%. In the age-group 60 years and older the majority were women. In this group two percent were operated on. However, males were operated on twice as often as women. The 90-day case-fatality rate after surgery was 1.4%. This information may assist health care providers in health care planning. Moreover, these data can also be used for power calculations when planning future clinical studies
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