Accumulation of expanded polyglutamine proteins is considered to be a major pathogenic biomarker of Huntington disease. We isolated SCAMP5 as a novel regulator of cellular accumulation of expanded polyglutamine track protein using cell-based aggregation assays. Ectopic expression of SCAMP5 augments the formation of ubiquitin-positive and detergent-resistant aggregates of mutant huntingtin (mtHTT). Expression of SCAMP5 is markedly increased in the striatum of Huntington disease patients and is induced in cultured striatal neurons by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or by mtHTT. The increase of SCAMP5 impairs endocytosis, which in turn enhances mtHTT aggregation. On the contrary, down-regulation of SCAMP5 alleviates ER stress-induced mtHTT aggregation and endocytosis inhibition. Moreover, stereotactic injection into the striatum and intraperitoneal injection of tunicamycin significantly increase mtHTT aggregation in the striatum of R6/2 mice and in the cortex of N171-82Q mice, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that exposure to ER stress increases SCAMP5 in the striatum, which positively regulates mtHTT aggregation via the endocytosis pathway
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