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Z-matrix formalism for quantitative noise assessment of covariance nuclear magnetic resonance spectra

By David A. Snyder, Arindam Ghosh, Fengli Zhang, Thomas Szyperski and Rafael Brüschweiler


Due to the limited sensitivity of many nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) applications, careful consideration must be given to the effect of NMR data processing on spectral noise. This work presents analytical relationships as well as simulated and experimental results characterizing the propagation of noise by unsymmetric covariance NMR processing, which concatenates two NMR spectra along a common dimension, resulting in a new spectrum showing spin correlations as cross peaks that are not directly measured in either of the two input spectra. It is shown how the unsymmetric covariance spectrum possesses an inhomogeneous noise distribution across the spectrum with the least amount of noise in regions whose rows and columns do not contain any cross or diagonal peaks and with the largest amount of noise on top of signal peaks. Therefore, methods of noise estimation commonly used in Fourier transform spectroscopy underestimate the amount of uncertainty in unsymmetric covariance spectra. Different data processing procedures, including the Z-matrix formalism, thresholding, and maxima ratio scaling, are described to assess noise contributions and to reduce noise inhomogeneity. In particular, determination of a Z score, which measures the difference in standard deviations of a statistic from its mean, for each spectral point yields a Z matrix, which indicates whether a given peak intensity above a threshold arises from the covariance of signals in the input spectra or whether it is likely to be caused by noise. Application to an unsymmetric covariance spectrum, obtained by concatenating two 2D 13C–1H heteronuclear, single quantum coherence (HSQC) and 13C–1H heteronuclear, multiple bond correlation (HMBC) spectra of a metabolite mixture along their common proton dimension, reveals that for sufficiently sensitive input spectra the reduction in sensitivity due to covariance processing is modest

Topics: Condensed Phase Dynamics, Structure, and Thermodynamics: Spectroscopy, Reactions, and Relaxation
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
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Provided by: PubMed Central
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