We developed a novel design of an electrode–pipette combination (EPC) which allows access to brain structures in awake behaving primates without the need for guide tubes or to mechanically open the dura prior to electrode insertion. The EPC consists of an etched tungsten in glass electrode flanked by two pipettes which allow for local and highly controlled iontophoretic administration of neuroactive substances. These EPCs have excellent single cell isolation properties and are sturdy enough to penetrate the primate dura for up to 8 weeks following either a craniotomy or a dura scrape (i.e. even after substantial built up of fibrous scar tissue). We show that the EPCs can be used to selectively manipulate the cholinergic system in primate V1 during passive fixation and while animals perform an attentionally demanding task
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