The second messenger, 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), is a critical component of many different processes in plants while guanylyl cyclases that catalyse the formation of cGMP from GTP have remained somewhat elusive in higher plants. Consequently, two major aims are the discovery of novel GCs and the identification of cGMP mediated processes. Recently, we have reported temporal signatures of ozone (O3)-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) generation, their effect on cGMP generation, and consequent transcriptional changes of genes diagnostic for stress responses in tobacco. We demonstrated that O3 and NO induced early transcriptional activation of the scavenger encoding proteins, alternative oxidase (AOX1a), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the induction of ethylene production through aminocyclopropancarboxylic acid synthase (ACS2) are cGMP-independent. By contrast, the early response of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene (PALa) and the late response of the gene encoding the pathogenesis-related protein (PR1a) show critical dependence on cGMP. Here we show differential cGMP responses to virulent and avirulent Pseudomonas syringae strains and propose that host-pathogen recognition and/or down-stream processes are transduced by complex cGMP signatures. This is in accordance with the identification of a growing number of multi-domain molecules in Arabidopsis that are reported to contain putative functional GC catalytic centers
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