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The RgpA-Kgp Proteinase-Adhesin Complexes of Porphyromonas gingivalis Inactivate the Th2 Cytokines Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-5▿

By Vivian Tam, Neil M. O'Brien-Simpson, Yu-Yen Chen, Colin J. Sanderson, Beverley Kinnear and Eric C. Reynolds

Abstract

The RgpA-Kgp proteinase-adhesin complexes are a primary virulence factor of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis. The RgpA-Kgp complexes have been suggested to bias the immune response to a Th2 phenotype in disease by hydrolysis of Th1 cytokines. Here, we show that the RgpA-Kgp complexes hydrolyze and inactivate interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5 under physiologically relevant conditions. Using the IL-4/IL-5-dependent TF1.8 T-cell line, it was found that at equimolar ratios of cytokine to RgpA-Kgp complexes, IL-4 and IL-5 were inactivated in the culture medium. The inactivation of IL-4 and IL-5 was RgpA-Kgp concentration dependent, as at an enzyme-to-cytokine molar ratio of 1:8, the bioactivity of the cytokines was greater than at the higher concentration of RgpA-Kgp of 1:1. Furthermore, inactivation of the cytokines by the RgpA-Kgp complexes was time dependent, as longer preincubation times resulted in lower cytokine activity. IL-5 was found to be slightly more resistant to inactivation than IL-4. Mass spectrometric analyses of IL-4 and IL-5 showed that hydrolysis by RgpA-Kgp complexes was C terminal to Arg and Lys residues of the cytokines. The peptides released indicated that the regions of IL-4 and IL-5 important for bioactivity were being hydrolyzed in the first 15 min of incubation. The ability of the RgpA-Kgp complexes to degrade Th2 cytokines may contribute to immune dysregulation and may play a role in the pathology of chronic periodontitis

Topics: Bacterial Infections
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:2663161
Provided by: PubMed Central
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