Human immunodeficiency virus Rev-binding protein (HRB), also called human Rev-interacting protein (hRIP) or Rev/Rex activation domain binding (RAB) is a partner of the tyrosine kinase substrate EPS15, and it has been recovered in the AP-2 interactome. EPS15 and AP-2 are involved in endocytosis, but the function of HRB in this process is still unknown. Here we identified HRB as a partner of the vesicular SNARE tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP, also called VAMP7) in yeast two-hybrid screens and using biochemical assays. In HeLa cells, HRB localized both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm, HRB colocalized with clathrin-, AP-2-, EPS15-, and transferrin receptor-containing vesicles. We did not see significant colocalization between HRB and TI-VAMP in HeLa cells, and we saw partial colocalization with green fluorescent protein-TI-VAMP in stably expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Nevertheless using a pHLuorin-tagged TI-VAMP construct, we found that HRB and TI-VAMP colocalize close to the plasma membrane after 5 min of anti-green fluorescent protein antibody uptake. These results suggest that TI-VAMP and HRB may interact only during the early stages of endocytosis. Furthermore uptake experiments followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting showed that the endocytosis of fluorescent transferrin and pHLuorin-TI-VAMP is strongly reduced in HRB knockdown cells. Altogether these results suggest that HRB is involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis and recruits TI-VAMP in this process
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