Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Habitat differentiation within the large-carnivore community of Norway's multiple-use landscapes

By Roel May, Jiska van Dijk, Petter Wabakken, Jon E Swenson, John DC Linnell, Barbara Zimmermann, John Odden, Hans C Pedersen, Reidar Andersen and Arild Landa


The re-establishment of large carnivores in Norway has led to increased conflicts and the adoption of regional zoning for these predators. When planning the future distribution of large carnivores, it is important to consider details of their potential habitat tolerances and strength of inter-specific differentiation. We studied differentiation in habitat and kill sites within the large-carnivore community of south-eastern Norway.We compared habitat selection of the brown bear Ursus arctos L., Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx L., wolf Canis lupus L. and wolverine Gulo gulo L., based on radio-tracking data. Differences in kill site locations were explored using locations of documented predator-killed sheep Ovis aries L. We modelled each species’ selection for, and differentiation in, habitat and kill sites on a landscape scale using resource selection functions and multinomial logistic regression. Based on projected probability of occurrence maps, we estimated continuous patches of habitat within the study area.Although bears, lynx, wolves and wolverines had overlapping distributions, we found a clear differentiation for all four species in both habitat and kill sites. The presence of bears, wolves and lynx was generally associated with rugged, forested areas at lower elevations, whereas wolverines selected rugged terrain at higher elevations. Some degree of sympatry was possible in over 40% of the study area, although only 1·5% could hold all four large carnivores together.Synthesis and applications. A geographically differentiated management policy has been adopted in Norway, aimed at conserving viable populations of large carnivores while minimizing the potential for conflicts. Sympatry of all four carnivores will be most successful if regional zones are established of adequate size spanning an elevational gradient. High prey densities, low carnivore densities, low dietary overlap and scavenging opportunities have most probably led to reduced competitive exclusion. Although regional sympatry enhances the conservation of an intact guild of large carnivores, it may well increase conflict levels and resistance to carnivore conservation locally

Topics: Habitat Suitability
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g... (external link)
  • Suggested articles


    1. (2005). A tale of two countries: large carnivore depredation and compensation schemes in Sweden and Norway. People and Wildlife. Conflict of Coexistence? (eds
    2. (1999). A terrain ruggedness index that quantifies topographic heterogeneity.
    3. (2007). accepted 28
    4. (2003). Adapting adaptive management to a cultural understanding of land use conflicts.
    5. (2000). Applied Logistic Regression, 2nd edn.
    6. (1999). Autocorrelation of location estimates and the analysis of radiotracking data.
    7. (2003). Brown bear–livestock conflicts in a bear conservation zone in Norway: are cattle a good alternative to sheep?
    8. (2001). Carnivores as focal species for conservation planning in the Rocky Mountain region.
    9. (2001). Changing landscapes: consequences for carnivores. Carnivore Conservation.
    10. (2007). Core Team
    11. (2006). Diet of Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx, in the boreal forest of south-eastern Norway: the relative importance of livestock and hares at low roe deer density.
    12. (2008). Diet shift of a facultative scavenger, the wolverine, following the recolonization of wolves.
    13. (1998). Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas.
    14. (2002). Estimating total lynx Lynx lynx population size from censuses of family groups.
    15. (2002). Evaluating resource selection functions.
    16. (2001). Flerarts- og soneforvaltning i rovdyr-saukonflikten. Utmarksbeite og store rovdyr. Delrapport 3 fra forskningsprogrammet Bruk og forvaltning av utmark (eds V.
    17. (2001). Grizzly bear, Ursus arctos, usurps bison calf, Bison bison, captured by wolves, Canis lupus, in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Canadian Field Naturalist,
    18. (2001). Habitat selection by predators and prey in communities with asymmetrical intraguild predation.
    19. (2005). Hunting moose or keeping sheep? – Producing meat in areas with carnivores.
    20. (2006). Impact of infrastructure on habitat selection of wolverines Gulo gulo.
    21. (2004). Innstilling fra energi- og miljøkomiteen om rovvilt i norsk natur,
    22. (2000). Interference interactions, co-existence and conservation of mammalian carnivores.
    23. (2001). Interspecific competition and the population biology of extinction-prone carnivores.
    24. (1999). Interspecific killing among mammalian carnivores.
    25. (1999). Mesocarnivores of Yellowstone. Carnivores in Ecosystems: The Yellowstone Experience (eds T.W.
    26. (2004). Minimum antall familiegrupper, bestandsestimat og bestandsutvikling for gaupe i Norge i 2004, NINA Minirapport 073. Norwegian Institute for Nature Research,
    27. (2000). Patch Analyst 2.2.
    28. (2007). Predation on moose calves by European brown bears.
    29. (2004). Relating resources to a probabilistic measure of space use: forest fragments and Steller’s jays.
    30. (2002). Relative sensitivities of mammalian carnivores to habitat fragmentation.
    31. (2002). Resource Selection by Animals: Statistical Design and Analysis for Field Studies, 2nd edn.
    32. (2003). Rovvilt i norsk natur, Stortingsmelding nr. 15 (2003–2004).
    33. (2007). Seasonal habitat associations of the wolverine in central Idaho.
    34. (2005). Spatial decomposition of predation risk using resource selection functions: an example in a wolf–elk predator–prey system.
    35. (1999). Spor og tegn. Et hefte til hjelp i bestemmelse av store rovdyr.
    36. (2007). Terrain use by an expanding brown bear population in relation to age, recreational resorts and human settlements.
    37. (2008). The Authors. Journal compilation ©
    38. (1995). The challenge and opportunity of recovering wolf populations.
    39. (1980). The comparison of usage and availability measurements for evaluating resource preference.
    40. (1998). The diet of brown bears in central Scandinavia: effects of access to free-ranging domestic sheep.
    41. (2002). The Fear of Wolves: A Review of Wolf Attacks on Humans, NINA Oppdragsmelding 731, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research,
    42. (1995). The near extinction and recovery of brown bears in Scandinavia in relation to the bear management policies of Norway and Sweden.
    43. (2001). The recovery, distribution, and population dynamics of wolves on the Scandinavian peninsula, 1978–1998.
    44. The relationship between population density and body size of wolverines Gulo gulo in Scandinavia.
    45. (2002). Towards an operational MODIS continuous field of percent tree cover algorithm: examples using AVHRR and MODIS data. Remote Sensing of Environment,
    46. (2003). Trophic facilitation by introduced top predators: gray wolf subsidies to scavengers in Yellowstone National Park.
    47. (2004). Ulv i Skandinavia. Statusrapport for vinteren 2002–2003. Høgskolen i Hedmark,
    48. (2005). Using GPS technology and GIS cluster analyses to estimate kill rates in wolf-ungulate ecosystems.
    49. (2003). Utredninger i forbindelse med ny rovviltmelding. Store rovdyrs innvirkning på hjorteviltet i Norge: Økologiske prosesser og konsekvenser for jaktuttak og jaktutøvelse, NINA fagrapport 63. Norwegian Institute for Nature Research,
    50. (2003). Utredninger i forbindelse med ny rovvlitmelding. Status og forvaltning av brunbjørnen i Norge, NINA fagrapport 60. Norwegian Institute for Nature Research,
    51. (1997). Wolverines and their prey in southern Norway.
    52. (2004). Yngleregistreringer av jerv i Norge i
    53. (2005). Zoning as a means of mitigating conflicts with large carnivores: principles and reality. People and Wildlife, Conflict or Co-existence? (eds

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.