Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The Inverted “U-Shaped” Dose-Effect Relationships in Learning and Memory: Modulation of Arousal and Consolidation

By Elisabetta Baldi and Corrado Bucherelli


In the ample field of biological non-linear relationships there is also the inverted U-shaped dose-effect. In relation to cognitive functions, this phenomenon has been widely reported for many active compounds, in several learning paradigms, in several animal species and does not depend on either administration route (systemic or endocerebral) or administration time (before or after training). This review summarizes its most interesting aspects. The hypothesized mechanisms supporting it are reported and discussed, with particular emphasis on the participation of emotional arousal levels in the modulation of memory processes. Findings on the well documented relationship between stress, emotional arousal, peripheral epinephrine levels, cerebral norepinephrine levels and memory consolidation are reported. These are discussed and the need for further research is underlined

Topics: Articles
Publisher: International Hormesis Society
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g... (external link)
  • Suggested articles

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.