Synchronous major vessel resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for borderline resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains controversial. In the 1970s, regional pancreatectomy advocated by Fortner was associated with unacceptably high morbidity and mortality rates, with no impact on long-term survival. With the establishment of a multidisciplinary approach, improvements in preoperative staging techniques, surgical expertise, and perioperative care reduced mortality rates and improved 5-year-survival rates are now achieved following resection in high-volume centres. Perioperative morbidity and mortality following PD with portal vein resection are comparable to standard PD, with reported 5-year-survival rates of up to 17%. Segmental resection and reconstruction of the common hepatic artery/proper hepatic artery (CHA/PHA) can be performed to achieve an R0 resection in selected patients with limited involvement of the CHA/PHA at the origin of the gastroduodenal artery (GDA). PD with concomitant major vessel resection for borderline resectable tumours should be performed when a margin-negative resection is anticipated at high-volume centres with expertise in complex pancreatic surgery. Where an incomplete (R1 or R2) resection is likely neoadjuvant treatment with systemic chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation as part of a clinical trial should be offered to all patients
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