Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Leuprorelin depot injection: patient considerations in the management of prostatic cancer

By Zinelabidine Abouelfadel and E David Crawford


Hormone therapy is well established for treating patients with prostate cancer and remains the mainstay of the treatment of metastatic and locally advanced disease, this article reviews the rationale for its use, its different forms, and complications and controversies still surrounding some of its modalities. Availability of long-acting synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists revolutionized the hormonal treatment of prostate cancer, and helped to avoid the emotional and psychological effects related to surgical castration. The depot formula has gained wide acceptance from both patients and physicians. This review emphasizes the newer, long-acting formula, leuprorelin (leuprolide acetate), especially the 6-month formula, its advantage over over shorter-acting depot products, and its potential to become a standard of care for patients eligible for androgen deprivation therapy

Topics: Review
Publisher: Dove Medical Press
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g... (external link)
  • Suggested articles


    1. 1985:Randomised controlled study of orchidectomy vs. long-acting D-Trp-6-LHRH microcapsules in advanced prostatic carcinoma.
    2. 2003.The use of fl utamide as a single antiandrogen treatment for hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
    3. (2006). 8-month neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer. Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi,
    4. (2006). A 12-month clinical study of LA-2585 (45.0 mg):a new 6-month subcutaneous delivery system for leuprolide acetate for the treatment of prostate cancer.
    5. (2002). A clinical study of 22.5 mg. La-2550: A new subcutaneous depot delivery system for leuprolide acetate for the treatment of prostate cancer.
    6. (1989). A controlled trial of leuprolide with and without fl utamide in prostatic carcinoma.
    7. (2004). A critical review of maximal androgen blockade for advanced prostate cancer.
    8. (2003). A multidisciplinary approach to the management of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Rev Urol,
    9. (2002). A phase 3, multicenter, open-label randomized study of abarelix versus leuprolide plus daily antiandrogen in men with prostate cancer.
    10. (2002). A six-month, open-label study assessing a new formulation of leuprolide 7.5 mg for suppression of testosterone in patients with prostate cancer. Cli Ther,
    11. (2001). Aberalix Study Group.A phase 3, multicenter, open-label, randomized study of abarelix versus leuprolide acetate in men with prostate cancer.
    12. (2003). Adjuvant hormone therapy after radiation or surgery for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol,
    13. (2005). Adverse events associated with hormonal therapy for prostate cancer. Rev Urol,
    14. (1998). An evaluation of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of leuprorelin acetate 3M-depot in patients with advanced and metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. Urol Int,
    15. (1999). Anaemia in men receiving combined fi nasteride and fl utamide therapy for advanced prostate cancer.
    16. (2005). Androgen suppression adjuvant to defi nitive radiotherapy in prostate carcinoma – long-term results of phase III RTOG 85-31.
    17. (1984). Antagonistic effect of androgen on prostatic cell death.
    18. (1996). Anti-androgens in the treatment of prostate cancer.
    19. (1999). Antiandrogens:a summary review of pharmacodynamic properties and tolerability in prostate cancer therapy. Arch Ital Urol Androl,
    20. (2001). Basic science of hormonal therapy for prostate cancer. Rev Urol,
    21. (2007). Bicalutamide 80 mg combined with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRH-A) versus LHRH-A monotherapy in advanced prostate cancer: fi ndings from a phase III randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial in Japanese patients.
    22. (1945). Bilateral adrenalectomy in prostatic cancer: clinical features and urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids and estrogen.
    23. (2005). Biochemical recurrence after defi nitive prostate cancer therapy. Part I:defi ning and localizing biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Curr Opin Urol,
    24. (1984). Biphasic regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor by receptor micro-aggregation and intracellular Ca2 levels. Med Pharmacol,
    25. (2005). Bone loss after initiation of androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer.
    26. (2002). Can combined androgen blockade provide long-term control or possible cure of localized prostate cancer? Urology,
    27. (1984). Clinical effi cacy of (DLeu6)-des Gly-NH2(10)-LHRH ethylamide against prostatic cancer]. Hinyokika Kiyo,
    28. (2002). Clinical pharmacokinetics of depot leuprorelin.
    29. (2004). Cognitive effects of hormonal treatment for prostate cancer.
    30. (2003). Combination of low-dose fl utamide and fi nasteride for PSA-only recurrent prostate cancer after primary therapy.
    31. (2006). Comment on: Can androgen deprivation be considered a primary treatment for prostate cancer? Nat Clin Pract Urol,
    32. (2000). Cost-effectiveness of androgen suppression therapies in advanced prostate cancer.
    33. (2004). Development of prostate cancer treatment: the good news.
    34. (2006). Discovery of a pituitary adenoma following a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in a patient with prostate cancer.
    35. (2005). Does needle size matters? Patient experience with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis,
    36. (1999). Early effects of castration on the vascular system of the rat ventral prostate gland.
    37. (2007). Early effects of pharmacological androgen deprivation in human prostate cancer.
    38. (2005). Early hormonal therapy for prostate cancer: the good, the bad and the ugly. Rev Urol,
    39. (2004). Early versus delayed hormonal therapy for prostate specifi c antigen only recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy J Urol,
    40. (2006). Effect of a new leuprorelin formulation on testosterone levels in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Curr Med Res Opin,
    41. (2006). Effi cacy of primary hormone therapy for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer:results of a 10-year follow-up.
    42. (2000). Evaluation of an implant that delivers leuprolide for 1 year for the palliative treatment of prostate cancer.
    43. (1941). Experimental and clinical evidence on the role of the 17 keto-steroids in prostatic carcinoma.
    44. (2004). Experimental use of GnRH antagonists as second-line hormonal therapy. Rev Urol,
    45. (2006). Failure to maintain a suppressed level of serum testosterone during long-acting depot luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Urol Int,
    46. (2001). Flare associated with LHRH-agonist therapy. Rev Urol,
    47. (1994). Flutamide monotherapy versus combined androgen blockade in advanced prostate cancer. Interim report of an Italian multicentre, randomised study.
    48. (1997). Flutamide versus orchidectomy in the treatment of metastatic prostate carcinoma. Eur Urol,
    49. (1992). Formulation study of leuprorelin acetate to improve clinical performance. Clin Ther,
    50. (2002). GnRH agonists, antagonists, and assisted conception. Semin Reprod Med,
    51. (2004). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in the management of prostate cancer. Rev Urol,
    52. (2006). Histrelin Study Group. Effi cacy and safety of histrelin subdermal implant in patients with advanced prostate cancer.
    53. (2002). Hormonal therapy of prostate cancer.
    54. (2003). Hormonal therapy:historical perspective to future direction.
    55. (1988). Hormone therapy for prostate cancer: results of the Veterans Administration Cooperative Urological Research Group studies.
    56. (1990). Human pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profi les of leuprorelin acetate depot in prostatic cancer patients.
    57. (2006). Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in men with prostate carcinoma who receive androgen-deprivation therapy.
    58. (1999). Immediate hormonal therapy compared with observation following radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in men with node-positive prostate cancer.
    59. (2006). Immediate or deferred androgen deprivation for patients with prostate cancer not suitable for local treatment with curative intent:
    60. (2000). Immediate vs. delayed hormone treatment for prostate cancer: how safe is androgen deprivation?
    61. (1957). Implantation of radioactive material into the pituitary for the control of prostatic cancer.
    62. (2000). Importance of high radiation doses (72 Gy or greater) in the treatment of stage T1-T3 adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
    63. (1990). Indications for use of ketoconazole in management of metastatic prostate cancer.
    64. (1983). Inhibition of mammary tumor growth in rats and mice by administration of agonistic and antagonistic analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.
    65. (1983). Intramuscular cyproterone acetate for advanced prostatic carcinoma:results of the fi rst multicentre trial.
    66. (1971). Isolation and properties of the FSH and LH-releasing hormone.
    67. (1998). John Hunter (1728–1793):fondateur de la chirurgie scientifi que et précurseur de l’urologie. Prog Urol,
    68. (1983). Ketoconazole: a novel and rapid treatment for advanced prostate cancer.
    69. (1998). Leuprolide acetate (30-mg depot every four months) in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.
    70. (2002). Leuprorelin acetate granulomas:recurrent subcutaneous nodules mimicking metastatic deposits at injections sites.
    71. (1991). Leuprorelin:a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic use in prostatic disorders. Drugs Aging,
    72. (1987). Long term experience with high dose ketoconazole therapy in patients with D2 prostatic carcinoma.
    73. (2005). Long-term side-effects of intermittent androgen suppression therapy in prostate cancer:results of a phase II study.
    74. (2003). Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists in the treatment of men with prostate cancer:timing, alternatives, and the 1-year implant.
    75. (2007). Mature results of the Ottawa Phase II study of intermittent androgen-suppression therapy in prostate cancer: clinical predictors of outcome Prostate-specifi c Antigen-only Recurrence.
    76. (1998). Maximal androgen blockade: fi nal analysis
    77. (2001). Medical versus surgical androgen suppression therapy for prostate cancer:a 10-year longitudinal cost study.
    78. (1999). Natural history of progression after PSA elevation following radical prostatectomy.
    79. (2007). New paradigms for advanced prostate cancer. Rev Urol,
    80. (2001). Nonsteroidal antiandrogens:a therapeutic option for patients with advanced prostate cancer who wish to retain sexual interest and function.
    81. (2005). Novel experimental therapeutic approaches for prostate cancer. EUA Update Series,
    82. (2007). Obesity and sex steroids during gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment for prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res,
    83. (1998). Orchidectomy and oestrogen therapy revisited. Eur Urol,
    84. (1989). Patients’ choice of treatment in stage D prostate cancer.
    85. (1988). Pharmacological studies on androgen suppression in therapy of prostate carcinoma.
    86. (1951). Pituitary irradiation in prostatic cancer.
    87. (1968). Plasma testosterone levels in patients with prostatic carcinoma before and after treatment.
    88. Practical observations on the treatment of the diseases of the prostate gland.
    89. (1940). Quantitative studies of prostatic secretion. II. The effect of castration and of estrogenic injections on the normal and on the hyperplasic prostate glands of dogs.
    90. (2000). Radiobiology for radiobiologist (5th ed).
    91. (1996). Randomized op abelledled comparative study of the effi cacy, safety and tolerability of leuprorelin acetate 1M and 3M depot in patients with advanced prostatic cancer. Eur Urol, 30:7–14; discussion
    92. (2007). Randomized prospective study of intermittent versus continuous androgen suppression in advanced prostate cancer.
    93. (2006). Reduced incidence of bony metastasis at initial prostate cancer diagnosis: data from CaPSURE. Urol Oncol,
    94. (2005). Reimbursement issues with hormonal therapies for prostate cancer. Rev Urol,
    95. (1997). Research Council Prostate Cancer Working Party Investigators Group.
    96. (2005). Risk of fracture after androgen deprivation for prostate cancer.
    97. (1994). Role of androgens in prostate cancer. Vitam Horm,
    98. (1996). Role of programmed (apoptotic) cell death during the progression and therapy for prostate cancer.
    99. (2000). Safety and effi cacy of an implantable leuprolide delivery system in patients with advanced prostate cancer.
    100. (2000). Single-therapy androgen suppression in men with advanced prostate cancer:a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    101. (1941). Studies on prostate cancer:the effect of castration, of estrogen and of androgen injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. Cancer Res,
    102. (1984). Successive waves of apoptosis in the rat prostate after repeated withdrawal of testosterone stimulation.
    103. (1974). Synthetic analogs of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) substituted in position 6 and 10. Biochem Biophys Res Commun,
    104. (1973). Synthetic analogs of the hypothalamic luteinizing hormone releasing factor with increased agonist or antagonist properties.
    105. (1965). Testosterone in human plasma.
    106. (1998). Testosterone stimulates angiogenesis and vascular re-growth in the ventral prostate in castrated adult rats.
    107. (2000). The case for neoadjuvant androgen suppression before radiation therapy. Mol Urol, 4:203-8; discussion 215.
    108. (2006). The case for secondary hormonal therapies in the chemotherapy age.
    109. (2005). The Current role of chemotherapy in metastatic hormonerefractory prostate cancer.
    110. (2006). The effect of neoadjuvant androgen suppression on prostate cancer-related outcomes after highintensity focused ultrasound therapy.
    111. (2000). The effects of androgen deprivation on the prostate gland:cell death mediated by vascular regression. Curr Opin Urology,
    112. (2001). The evolution of hormonal therapy for prostatic carcinoma. Rev Urol,
    113. (2004). The evolving defi nition of advanced prostate cancer. Rev Urol,
    114. (1984). The Leuprolide Study Group.
    115. (2006). The metabolic syndrome in men with prostate cancer undergoing long term androgen deprivation therapy.
    116. (1904). The results of double castration in hyper-trophy of the prostate. Ann Surg,
    117. (1983). The treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer with a potent luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue.
    118. (1997). Therapeutic effects of leuprorelin microspheres in prostate cancer. Adv Drug Deliv Rev,
    119. (1997). Tolerability of nonsteroidal antiandrogens in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.
    120. (1979). Trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy in the treatment of metastatic breast and prostate carcinoma.
    121. (2001). Treatment of localized prostate cancer with intermittent triple androgen blockade:preliminary results in 110 consecutive patients.
    122. (1936). Treatment of malignant tumors of the prostate.
    123. (2006). Trends in primary androgen depletion therapy for patients with localized and locally advanced prostate cancer: Japanese perspective. Cancer Sci,
    124. (1982). Tumour growth inhibition in patients with prostaic carcinoma treated with luteinising hormone releasing hormone agonists.
    125. (2005). Value of androgen ablation in conjunction with radiation for locally advanced Pca: clinical outcomes of androgen deprivation as the sole therapy for localized and locally advanced prostate cancer.
    126. (2000). Vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in the rat ventral prostate gland and the early effects of castration.

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.