All new interventions and procedures must be properly assessed in comparison to the currently accepted method(s). It is unethical not to do so. The optimum method is by Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT). This is ideally suited to the testing of drugs because the trial can usually be double blind and placebo controlled. RCTs are less commonly used for the evaluation of new surgical techniques. There are valid and invalid reasons for this and these are discussed
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