Controlled vocabularies are common within bioinformatics resources. They can be used to give a summary of the knowledge held about a particular entity. They are also used to constrain values given for particular attributes of an entity. This helps create a shared understanding of a domain and aids increased precision and recall during querying of resources. Ontologies can also provide such facilities, but can also enhance their utility. Controlled vocabularies are often simply lists of words, but may be viewed as a kind of ontology. Ideally ontologies are structurally enriched with relationships between terms within the vocabulary. Use of such rich forms of vocabularies in database annotation could enhance those resources usability by both humans and computers. The representation of the knowledge content of biological resources in a computationally accessible form opens the prospect of greater support for a biologist investigating new data
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