Renal artery embolism was first described in 1940, but it is only recently becoming recognized as a clinically significant entity. Although relatively uncommon, it is clearly responsible for considerable morbidity in patients who experience it. The pathogenesis is typically related to cardiac thrombus formation with subsequent embolization, although other etiologies have been described. The authors present a case report followed by a review of the literature to highlight the clinical characteristics of this phenomena. Presentation, diagnostics, and treatment options will be reviewed with the aim of increasing awareness of renal artery embolism. As clinicians become more familiar with this condition, they will be more likely to consider it as a possible diagnosis in patients with a typical presentation. This will hopefully lead to improved care through prompt diagnosis and treatment, particularly as one treatment option may be time sensitive
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