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Localization and Characterization of STRO-1+ Cells in the Deer Pedicle and Regenerating Antler

By Hans J. Rolf, Uwe Kierdorf, Horst Kierdorf, Jutta Schulz, Natascha Seymour, Henning Schliephake, Joanna Napp, Sabine Niebert, Helmuth Wölfel and K. Günter Wiese

Abstract

The annual regeneration of deer antlers is a unique developmental event in mammals, which as a rule possess only a very limited capacity to regenerate lost appendages. Studying antler regeneration can therefore provide a deeper insight into the mechanisms that prevent limb regeneration in humans and other mammals, and, with regard to medical treatments, may possibly even show ways how to overcome these limitations. Traditionally, antler regeneration has been characterized as a process involving the formation of a blastema from de-differentiated cells. More recently it has, however, been hypothesized that antler regeneration is a stem cell-based process. Thus far, direct evidence for the presence of stem cells in primary or regenerating antlers was lacking. Here we demonstrate the presence of cells positive for the mesenchymal stem cell marker STRO-1 in the chondrogenic growth zone and the perivascular tissue of the cartilaginous zone in primary and regenerating antlers as well as in the pedicle of fallow deer (Dama dama). In addition, cells positive for the stem cell/progenitor cell markers STRO-1, CD133 and CD271 (LNGFR) were isolated from the growth zones of regenerating fallow deer antlers as well as the pedicle periosteum and cultivated for extended periods of time. We found evidence that STRO-1+ cells isolated from the different locations are able to differentiate in vitro along the osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. Our results support the view that the annual process of antler regeneration might depend on the periodic activation of mesenchymal progenitor cells located in the pedicle periosteum. The findings of the present study indicate that not only limited tissue regeneration, but also extensive appendage regeneration in a postnatal mammal can occur as a stem cell-based process

Topics: Research Article
Publisher: Public Library of Science
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:2312329
Provided by: PubMed Central
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