Location of Repository

Cellular mechanisms by which adenosine induces vasodilatation in rat skeletal muscle: significance for systemic hypoxia

By Philip T Bryan and Janice M Marshall

Abstract

In anaesthetized rats, we recorded arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate (HR), femoral blood flow (FBF) and femoral vascular conductance (FVC). We tested the effects of the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibitor l-NAME (nitro-l-arginine methyl ester), or the ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel inhibitor glibenclamide, on responses evoked by systemic hypoxia (breathing 8% O2 for 5 min) or i.a. infusion for 5 min of adenosine, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the adenosine A1 receptor agonist CCPA (2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine) or the adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 (2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride).l-NAME (10 mg kg−1 i.v.) greatly reduced the increase in FVC induced by hypoxia or adenosine, as we have shown before, but had no effect on the increase in FVC evoked by SNP. In addition, l-NAME abolished the increase in FVC evoked by CCPA and greatly reduced that evoked by CGS 21680. These results substantiate the view that muscle vasodilatation induced by systemic hypoxia and infused adenosine are largely NO dependent. They also indicate that muscle dilatation induced by A1 receptor stimulation is entirely NO dependent while that induced by A2A receptors is largely NO dependent; dilatation may also be induced by direct stimulation of A2A receptors on the vascular smooth muscle.Glibenclamide (10 or 20 mg kg−1 i.v.) reduced the increase in FVC induced by hypoxia, preferentially affecting the early part (< 1 min). In addition, glibenclamide greatly reduced the increase in FVC induced by adenosine, but it had no effect on that evoked by SNP. Further, glibenclamide abolished the increase in FVC evoked by CCPA and greatly reduced that evoked by CGS 21680. These results substantiate the view that hypoxia-induced muscle vasodilatation is initiated by KATP channel opening. They also indicate that NO does not induce muscle vasodilatation by opening KATP channels on the vascular smooth muscle, but indicate that the dilatation induced by adenosine and by A2A receptor stimulation is largely dependent on KATP channel opening, while that induced by A1 receptor stimulation is wholly dependent on KATP channel opening.These results, together with previous evidence that hypoxia-induced vasodilatation in skeletal muscle is largely mediated by adenosine acting on A1 receptors, lead us to propose that adenosine is released from endothelium during systemic hypoxia and acts on endothelial A1 receptors to open KATP channels on the endothelial cells and cause synthesis of NO, which then acts on the vascular smooth muscle to cause dilatation. During severe systemic hypoxia we propose that adenosine may also act on A2A receptors on the endothelium to cause dilatation by a similar process and may act on A2A receptors on the vascular smooth muscle to cause dilatation by opening KATP channels

Topics: Research Papers
Publisher: Blackwell Science Inc
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:2269062
Provided by: PubMed Central
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g... (external link)
  • Suggested articles


    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.