This chapter aims to provide a different perspective in order to break through the automatic identification of trafficking in human beings with sex and crime. The chapter first gives an indication of the wide range of human rights violations in the area of trafficking, showing that what was known for a longer time about the occurrence of human rights violations in cases of trafficking for sexual exploitation is often also true for cases of trafficking into ‘other industries’. It then assesses existing approaches to trafficking, such as restricting migration and a human rights-based approach. The final section then sets out a cosmopolitan approach necessary to recognise duties across national borders beyond state obligations to implement human rights only in their own countries
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