This paper is informed by the following guidelines from the sponsors of the Lowenstein Symposium: The focus. . . will be the claim advanced by nation-states that threats to their particular security necessitate and justify the curtailment of fundamental freedoms and liberties of the individual person within the national domain. We request that panelists address their remarks specifically to questions such as: What are the contending claims made by state officials and individuals and the attendant circumstances? What are the underlying policy justifications for derogations? What, in such situations, constitutes a violation or deprivation of human rights? What, until now, has been the international community\u27s approach to the analysis and resolution of state security and human rights claims? What ought the appropriate response to the international community be
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