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By Lurleen M. Walters, Robert D. Emerson and Nobuyuki Iwai


The issue of legalization for unauthorized farm workers is examined in this paper. The analytical framework uses a treatment effects approach which casts legalization as a treatment under the assumption of heterogeneity. The results show an overall positive impact of legalization on farm worker wage outcomes and with the expected positive sorting on the gains from legal status.International Relations/Trade, Labor and Human Capital,

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