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Predicting language learners' grades in the L1, L2, L3 and L4: the effect of some psychological and sociocognitive variables

By Jean-Marc Dewaele

Abstract

This study of 89 Flemish high-school students' grades for L1 (Dutch), L2 (French), L3 (English) and L4 (German) investigates the effects of three higher-level personality dimensions (psychoticism, extraversion, neuroticism), one lower-level personality dimension (foreign language anxiety) and sociobiographical variables (gender, social class) on the participants' language grades. Analyses of variance revealed no significant effects of the higher-level personality dimensions on grades. Participants with high levels of foreign language anxiety obtained significantly lower grades in the L2 and L3. Gender and social class had no effect. Strong positive correlations between grades in the different languages could point to an underlying sociocognitive dimension. The implications of these findings are discussed

Topics: alc
Publisher: Taylor and Francis
Year: 2007
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.bbk.ac.uk.oai2:531

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  1. a fragment of a documentary, a film, a fragment of a serial; simply formulated and simply structured artistic literary texts such as a chanson/song, a play excerpt.
  2. arrange the information in a comprehensible and personal way in simply formulated and simply structured informative texts, such as a newspaper article, an article in a magazine.
  3. At a structural level and for an unknown audience, pupils are able to: give instructions; present well-documented information; have an interview for a job.
  4. At a structural level, pupils are able to ask an adult they know some questions and formulate answers with regard to parts of the curriculum in school subjects.
  5. At a structural level, the pupils are able to read forms and administrative texts for an unknown audience;
  6. (2002). Auto-estima e aprendizagem de linguas estrangeiras [Self-esteem and foreign language learning].
  7. complete forms and questionnaires which are relevant to them;
  8. continue and conclude a relatively complex, direct dialogue such as a conversation, question and answer session, discussion;
  9. continue and conclude a telephone conversation which is not too complex;
  10. cover and comment on experiences and events;
  11. describe a situation in a simple way;
  12. (1994). Examination of Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope’s construct of foreign language anxiety: The case of students of Japanese. The Modern Language doi
  13. (1999). Extraversion: The unloved variable in applied linguistic research. doi
  14. For the execution of these activities, the pupils are able to make efficient use of data, concepts and methods.
  15. formulate a point of view about a familiar subject, stating reasons.
  16. formulate a spontaneous view/evaluation of a familiar subject;
  17. give a simple presentation about a familiar subject;
  18. give a spontaneous view/evaluation of a familiar subject.
  19. in a conversation, respond to the contributions of the partner in the conversation.
  20. in general terms, repeat the content of informative texts they have read;
  21. indicate elements of the composition of a text; are able to interpret the writer’s use of language and draw conclusions from it with regard to the writer’s intentions and emotions.
  22. provide and ask information about documents such as an illustration, a form, an instructions guide, a design, a quotation.
  23. provide information about themselves, their world and experiences, and ask for similar information;
  24. put forward a view or conclusion, stating reasons, about simple informative, prescriptive, narrative and polemical texts they have listened to or the same texts which they have read and which are not too complex;
  25. put forward a view or conclusion, stating reasons, about simple informative, prescriptive, narrative and polemical texts they have listened to or the same texts which they haver e a d and which are not too complex;
  26. put forward points of view, based on arguments in a discussion;
  27. react adequately to a simple direct conversation and a simple telephone conversation.
  28. recount an informative and narrative text which they have listened to or read;
  29. reflect on language and the use of language. This means that they: are familiar with the basic forms of interaction; are familiar with non-verbal behaviour; are familiar with the composition of a spoken text (redundancy, incomplete sentences
  30. reflect on language and the use of language. This means that they: are familiar with the basic forms of interaction; are familiar with non-verbal behaviour; are familiar with the composition of a spoken text (redundancy, incomplete sentences ...).
  31. reflect on language and the use of language. This means that they: are familiar with the basic forms of interaction; are familiar with non-verbal behaviour.
  32. reflect on the individual character of the reading task. This means that they: are able to make a distinction between different types of text; know about different language registers
  33. reflect on the individual character of the written language. This means that they: are able to make a distinction between different types of text; recognise different language registers
  34. reflect on the individual character of the written language. This means that they: know that the written language is more formal and structured than the spoken language; can interpret the significance of spelling, punctuation and lay-out.
  35. (1971). Relationship of class participation to personality, ability, and achievement variables. doi
  36. report on their own experiences or an event.
  37. sufficiently understand the discussion partner to have a simple conversation or to participate in a simple telephone conversation.
  38. sufficiently understand the discussion partner to participate in a rather complex conversation and in a telephone conversation which is not too complex.
  39. summarise, in a comprehensible and personal way, information found in simple texts listened to and in not too complex read tests. The texts are of the informative, narrative and polemic kind;
  40. The pupils are able to choose a listening strategy depending on the listening aim(s) and the types of text which are used (orientational, searching, general or intensive).
  41. The pupils are able to choose and use a reading strategy depending on the reading aim and the types of text which are used (orientational, searching, general and intensive).
  42. The pupils are able to critically read texts for study purposes for unknown contemporaries.
  43. The pupils are able to describe, evaluate and document their choice of text and reading experience in a reading file.
  44. The pupils are able to evaluate an argument in terms of its control and cohesion and identify false arguments.
  45. The pupils are able to identify, name and discuss the interrelationship between important components (morphology, syntax, semantics) of the language system.
  46. The pupils are able to listen to explanations and the statement of a problem by an adult they know at a structural level, related to part of the curriculum intended for their contemporaries and are able to write them down (cf.
  47. The pupils are able to make use of the appropriate reading strategies for these activities (cf. final objective 17).
  48. The pupils are able to monitor their own language tasks by means of recognising, naming and discussing linguistic characteristics;
  49. The pupils are able to recognise and discuss the influence of society, history and politics on the use of language and the language system.
  50. The pupils are able to use different strategies to ascribe meaning to unknown words. This concerns the use of: the context; a prior knowledge; the principles of the formation of words
  51. The pupils are able to write types of texts at a structural level intended for an unknown audience. This concerns types of texts such as: diagrams and summaries of information which they have listened to or read and study texts; instructions; invitations.
  52. The pupils are able to write types of texts in a critical way intended for an unknown audience: reports; letters of application and CVs; business letters; well-documented and well-argued texts.
  53. The pupils are familiar with the principles of our spelling system;
  54. The pupils are prepared to listen; adopt an unprejudiced listening attitude; allow another to speak; reflect on their own listening behaviour; test what they hear against their own knowledge and their understanding. II Speaking/conducting conversations
  55. The pupils are prepared to think about their own use of language and language system. French-English I Listening The pupils are able to:
  56. The pupils are prepared to: read literary texts; speak and write about their own reading experience; put their reading experience in a social context; compare their own reading experience with the reading experience of others.
  57. The pupils are prepared to: show an interest in what the speaker is saying; listen attentively and without prejudice; respect listening conventions; identify with the speaker’s sociocultural world; be open to aesthetic experiences. II Reading
  58. The pupils are prepared to: write; provide written information; reflect on their own writing process and the content and form of their written product; take responsibility for language, structure, spelling, handwriting and lay-out.
  59. The pupils are willing to listen carefully as a condition for speaking well; speak and participate in a conversation; aim at a correct formulation and grammar.
  60. The pupils are willing to listen carefully as a condition for speaking well; speak and participate in a conversation; aim at a correct formulation and grammar. 196 International Journal of MultilingualismIV Writing The pupils are able to:
  61. The pupils are willing to listen carefully in order to speak well; to speak and participate in a conversation; to aim for a correct use of words and grammar; to aim at a varied use of language. IV Writing The pupils are able to:
  62. The pupils can collect and use information on literature. To do this they know about the provisions of information channels such as: library, newspapers and magazines, radio and TV programmes, internet and cd-rom.
  63. use communication strategies. This means that they: consult traditional and electronic resources; make use of the possibilities of ICT or models in the writing process.
  64. use communication strategies. This means that they: deduce the meaning of words they do not know from the context; make use of visual material, (lexical) context, redundancy; make efficient use of traditional and electronic resources and databases.
  65. use communication strategies. This means that they: independently consult traditional and electronic resources; make use of the possibilities of ICT in the writing process; make use of a model.
  66. (1992). Variation synchronique des taux d’exactitude. Analyse de fre ´quence des erreurs morpholexicales dans trois styles d’interlangue franc ¸aise.
  67. (1992). Variation synchronique des taux d’exactitude. Analyse de fre´quence des erreurs morpholexicales dans trois styles d’interlangue franc¸aise.
  68. Within suitable communication situations, pupils are prepared to: speak; speak generally received Dutch; adopt a critical attitude to their own speaking and conversational behaviour. III Reading
  69. write a report about their own experiences, a situation or an event in a comprehensible and personal way;
  70. write a simple announcement, letter and e-mail.
  71. write an informal or formal letter, memorandum or e-mail that is not too complex;

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