Location of Repository

Economic models of shifting cultivation: a review

By Yoshito Takasaki


This chapter reviews farm-level economic models of shifting cultivation and those of deforestation and soil conservation related to shifting cultivation. Although economists have made significant progress in modeling shifting cultivation over the last two decades, extant economic models neither clearly distinguish between primary and secondary forests nor address potential roles of on-farm soil conservation in shifting cultivation. Developing a unified farm model of primary forest clearing, forest fallowing, and on-farm soil conservation is needed to examine effective policies for protecting primary forest and maintaining sustainable secondary fallow forest. The chapter points to promising avenues for future modeling.

OAI identifier:

Suggested articles



  1. (2006). A model of shifting cultivation: can soil conservation reduce deforestation?
  2. (1999). A note on soil depth, failing markets and agricultural pricing.
  3. (2006). A note on soil depth, failing markets and agricultural pricing":
  4. (2008). A spatiotemporal model of shifting cultivation and forest cover dynamics.
  5. (1999). Agricultural expansion and deforestation: modeling the impact of population, market forces and property rights.
  6. (2007). Agricultural expansion, forest products as safety nets, and deforestation.
  7. (2004). Agricultural expansion, resource boom and growth in Latin America: implications for long-run economic development.
  8. (1986). Agricultural Household Models: Extensions, Applications, and Policy, The John Hopkins
  9. (2001). Agricultural intensification versus extensification: a case study of deforestation in the northern-hill region of Vietnam.
  10. (1982). Amazon basin soils: management for continuous crop production.
  11. (1995). An economic model of smallholder deforestation: a consideration of the shadow value of land on the frontier. In: Management of tropical forests: towards an integrated perspective,
  12. (1983). An economic model of soil conservation.
  13. (1993). An Inquiry into Well-Being and Destitution,
  14. (2003). Aspects of land use in slash and burn agriculture.
  15. (1987). Behavioral and material determinants of production relations in land-abundant tropical agriculture.
  16. (1991). Brazilian policies that encourage deforestation in the Amazon.
  17. (1995). Calculation of the value which forest land and immature stands possess for forestry.
  18. (2001). Can non-timber forest products match tropical forest conservation and development objectives?
  19. (2009). Charcoal making in the Brazilian Amazon: economic aspects of production and carbon conversion efficiencies of kilns. In: Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek's Vision,
  20. (1986). Common property resources and rural poor in dry region of India.
  21. (2001). Conflicts over property rights and natural-resource exploitation at the frontier.
  22. (1996). Cropping and fallowing sequences of small farmers in the "terra firme" landscape of the Brazilian Amazon: a case study from Santarem,
  23. (2006). Deprived land use intensification in forest-fallow agricultural systems under population pressure.
  24. (1998). Development Economics,
  25. (1999). Development Microeconomics,
  26. (1992). Do increased commodity prices lead to more or less soil degradation?
  27. (1991). Dual economic growth in poor tropical areas.
  28. (2007). Dynamic household models of forest clearing under distinct land and labor market institutions: can agricultural policies reduce tropical deforestation?
  29. (1991). Dynamic Optimization:
  30. (1999). Dynamics of secondary forests in slash-and-burn farming: interactions among land use types in the Peruvian Amazon.
  31. (1998). Economic Models of Tropical Deforestation: A Review,
  32. (2001). Environmental degradation in developing countries: households and the (reverse) Environmental Kuznets Curve.
  33. (1997). Environmental externalities in traditional agriculture and the impact of trade liberalization: the case of Ghana.
  34. (2003). Exploring the forest-poverty link: key concepts, issues and research implications.
  35. (1980). Farming Systems in the Tropics,
  36. (1990). Forest resource depletion, soil dynamics, and agricultural productivity in the tropics.
  37. (1993). Historical biogeography of fire: tropical and subtropical. In: Fire in the environment: the ecological, atmospheric, and climatic importance of vegetation fires,
  38. (1992). Household composition, labor markets and labor demand: testing for separation in agricultural household models.
  39. (1990). How to do comparative dynamics on the back of an envelope in optimal control theory.
  40. (2001). Human Well-being and the Natural Environment,
  41. (1993). Human-environmental influences and interactions in shifting agriculture when farmers form expectations rationally.
  42. (2000). Land reform policies, the sources of violent conflict, and implications for deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.
  43. (2001). Land Tenure and Natural Resource Management, The Johns Hopkins
  44. (2011). Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover.
  45. (2000). Links between economic liberalization and rural resource degradation in the developing regions.
  46. (1995). Links between rural poverty and the environment in developing countries: asset categories and investment poverty.
  47. (2002). Market integration, development, and smallholder forest clearance.
  48. (1996). Microeconomic responses to macroeconomic reforms in the optimal control of soil erosion. In: The Environment and Emerging Development Issues,
  49. (1977). Nonconvexity and optimal exhaustion of renewable resources.
  50. (1979). Nonconvexity and optimal harvesting strategies for renewable resources.
  51. (2007). On Price Liberalization, Poverty, and Shifting Cultivation: An Example from Mexico.
  52. (2004). On the economics of the optimal fallow-cultivation cycle.
  53. (1991). Optimal soil conservation and the reform of agricultural pricing policies.
  54. (2000). Optimal Soil Depletion with Output and Price Uncertainty.
  55. (2001). Peasant charcoal production in the Peruvian Amazon: rainforest use and economic reliance.
  56. (2006). Personal preferences and intensification of land use: their impact on southern Cameroonian slashand-burn agroforestry systems.
  57. (1994). Population growth, soil fertility, and agricultural intensification.
  58. (2001). Population, tenure, and natural resource management: the case of customary land area in Malawi.
  59. (2001). Poverty alleviation and tropical forests - what scope for synergies?
  60. (2007). Poverty and the Management of Natural Resources: A Model of Shifting Cultivation.
  61. (2010). Poverty, Development, and Environment.
  62. (2008). Poverty, Risk, and the Supply of Soil Carbon Sequestration.
  63. (2007). Prehistorically modified soils of central Amazonia: a model for sustainable agriculture in the twentyfirst century.
  64. (1997). Property rights and the evolution of a frontier.
  65. (1994). Property rights and tropical deforestation.
  66. (1990). Property rights, externalities, and resource degradation.
  67. (2006). Putting the carbon back: black is the new green.
  68. (1992). Resource management by West African farmers and the economics of shifting cultivation.
  69. (1999). Rethinking the causes of deforestation: lessons from economic models.
  70. (1996). Roads, Land Use, and Deforestation: A Spatial Model Applied to Belize.
  71. (1994). Shifting cultivation expansion and intensity of production: the open economy case.
  72. (2006). Shorter fallow cycles affect the availability of noncrop plant resources in a shifting cultivation system.
  73. (2004). Simple Model of Resource Degradation and Agricultural Productivity in a Subsistence Economy.
  74. (2004). Slash and char: an alternative to slash and burn practiced in the Amazon basin. In: Amazonian Dark Earths: Origins, Properties, and
  75. (1997). Soil conservation and government policies in tropical areas: does aid worsen the incentives for arresting erosion?
  76. (1997). Soil conservation as an investment in land.
  77. (1999). Stochastic food prices and slash-and-burn agriculture.
  78. (1995). Sustainable management of soil resources in the humid tropics, United
  79. (2004). Swidden agriculture in developing countries.
  80. (2004). Targeting conservation-development initiatives in tropical forests: insights from analyses of rain forest use and economic reliance among Amazonian peasants.
  81. (2002). Technological change and tropical deforestation: a perspective at the household level.
  82. (1991). The causes of land degradation along "spontaneously" expanding agricultural frontier in the third world: comment.
  83. (1990). The causes of land degradation along "spontaneously" expanding agricultural frontiers in the third world.
  84. (1965). The Conditions of Agricultural Growth: The Economics of Agrarian Change under Population Pressure,
  85. (1995). The ecological sustainability of slash-and-burn agriculture.
  86. (1997). The economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries.
  87. (2001). The economics of tropical deforestation.
  88. (1997). The economics of tropical forest land use options.
  89. (1995). The effect of labor market performance on deforestation in developing countries under open access: an example from rural Nepal.
  90. (2000). The effects of slash burning on ecosystem nutrients during the land preparation phase of shifting cultivation.
  91. (1994). The environment as a factor of production: the effects of economic growth and trade liberalization.
  92. (2009). The Fallow and the Non-fallow States in Swidden Agriculture: A Stochastic Analysis.
  93. (1990). The farm-level economics of soil conservation: the uplands of Java.
  94. (2009). The future of tropical species in secondary forests: a quantitative review.
  95. (2009). The potential for species conservation in tropical secondary forests.
  96. (1992). The Primary Source: Tropical Forests and Our Future,
  97. (1990). The race for property rights.
  98. (1992). The supply of non-degraded agricultural land.
  99. (2000). Tropical forests and shifting cultivation: secondary forest fallow dynamics among traditional farmers of the Peruvian Amazon.
  100. (1990). Tropical secondary forests.
  101. (1999). What future for the people of the tropical forests?

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.