We find that the CAPM fails to explain the small firm effect even if its non-parametric form is used which allows time-varying risk and non-linearity in the pricing function. Furthermore, the linearity of the CAPM can be rejected, thus the widely used risk and performance measures, the beta and the alpha, are biased and inconsistent. We deduce semi-parametric measures which are non-constant under extreme market conditions in a single factor setting; on the other hand, they are not significantly different from the linear estimates of the Fama-French three-factor model. If we extend the single factor model with the Fama-French factors, the simple linear model is able to explain the US stock returns correctly.Asset pricing Kernel regression Risk measures Semi-parametric models Non-parametric models
To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.