Location of Repository

Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC): Times series evidence from Portugal

By Muhammad Shahbaz, Abdul Jalil and Smile Dube

Abstract

The paper provides empirical evidence of an EKC – a relationship between income and environmental degradation for Portugal by applying autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) to times series data. In order to capture Portugal’s historical experience, demographic changes, and international trade on CO2 emissions, we assess the traditional income-emissions model with variables such as energy consumption, urbanization, and trade openness in time series framework. There is evidence of an EKC in both the short and long-run approaches. All variables carry the expected sign except trade openness which has the wrong sign and is statistically insignificant in both the short-run and long-run. Despite the success of Portugal in containing CO2 emissions so far, it is important to note that in recent years, emissions have risen. In order to comply with the 1992 Kyoto Protocol on CO2 emissions, there is need for policies that focus on the top five sectors responsible for about 55 percent of CO2 emissions are due to the extraction of crude petroleum, manufacturing of refined products, electricity distribution, construction, land transport and transport via pipeline services.Cointegration; Causality; Environmental Kuznets Curve

OAI identifier:

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2000). A note on the causal relationship between energy and GDP in Taiwan.
  2. (1994). A review of the econometric evidence on the effects of capital punishment.
  3. (1999). An autoregressive distributed lag modeling approach to cointegration analysis.
  4. (2009). An econometric study of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, income and foreign trade in Turkey.
  5. (2008). An empirical test of the environmental Kuznets curve in China: a panel cointegration approach.
  6. (2010). Carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: panel data evidence from developing countries.
  7. (2008). China's industrial SO2 emissions and its economic determinants: EKC's reduced vs. structural model and the role of international trade.
  8. (2010). CO2 emissions, electricity consumption and output in ASEAN.
  9. (2010). CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Turkey. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.
  10. (2007). CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France.
  11. (1987). Cointegration and error correction representation: estimation and testing.
  12. (1996). Crime, punishment and the market for offences.
  13. (2003). Determinants of CO2 emissions in a small open economy.
  14. (2002). Determinants of emissions growth in OECD countries.
  15. (2003). Development, trade and environment. How robust is the environmental Kuznets curve?
  16. (2008). Does trade liberalization reduce pollution emissions? Discussion papers 08013, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry
  17. (2008). Economic development, pollutant emissions and energy consumption in Malaysia.
  18. (1996). Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation: The Environmental Kuznets Curve and Sustainability.
  19. (2010). Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia: an empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve.
  20. (1998). Economic growth, trade and the energy: implications for the environmental Kuznets curve.
  21. (2010). Electricity consumption and economic growth in seven South American countries.
  22. (2009). Electricity consumption and economic growth, the case of Lebanon.
  23. (2010). Electricity consumption and economic growth: A cross-country analysis.
  24. (2009). Electricity consumption and economic growth: a time series experience for 17 African countries,
  25. (2009). Electricity consumption–growth nexus: The case of Malaysia.
  26. (1993). Empirical tests and policy analysis of environmental degradation at different stages of economic development, Technology, Environment and Employment, Geneva: International Labour Office.
  27. (2006). Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Turkey: empirical analysis and future projection based on an economic growth.
  28. (2010). Energy consumption and economic growth: evidence from the commonwealth of independent states.
  29. (2009). Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in China.
  30. (2007). Energy consumption, income and carbon emissions in the United States.
  31. (2004). Energy use and CO2 emissions in Portugal. Faculty of economics of university of
  32. (2009). Environment Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions: a cointegration analysis for China.
  33. (1995). Environmental degradation at different stages economic development,
  34. (1991). Environmental impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement,
  35. (1993). Environmental impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement. The Mexico-U.S. Free Trade Agreement”, edited by
  36. (2010). Environmental Kuznets curve and The role of energy consumption
  37. (2005). Environmental Kuznets curves for CO2: Heterogeneity versus homogeneity. CentER Discussion Paper 2005–25,
  38. (2010). Examining carbon emissions-economic growth nexus for India: a multivariate cointegration approach.
  39. (2004). Examining the impact of demographic factors on air pollution.
  40. (2010). Fighting terrorism: are military measures effective? empirical evidence from Turkey. Defence and Peace
  41. (2010). Finance-growth nexus in China revisited: New evidence from principal components and ARDL bounds tests,
  42. (2003). Financial reforms and economic development in China.
  43. (2008). Former Soviet Union oil production and GDP decline: Granger Causality and the multi-cycle Hubbert curve.
  44. (2005). Impacts of oil price fluctuation to China economy.
  45. (2006). Income and emission: a panel data-based cointegration analysis.
  46. (2005). Is trade good or bad for the environment? sorting out the causality.
  47. (2010). Macroeconomic Environment and Financial Sector’s Performance: Econometric Evidence from Three Traditional Approaches.
  48. (1990). Maximum likelihood estimation and inference on cointegration with applications to the demand for money.
  49. (2002). Moving to greener pastures? multinationals and the pollution haven hypothesis. NBER Working Papers 8888, National Bureau of Economic Research.
  50. (2009). Multivariate granger causality between electricity consumption, exports and GDP: evidence from a panel of Middle Eastern countries.
  51. (1996). Numerical Distribution Functions for Unit Root and Cointegration Tests,
  52. (1997). On temporal causal relationship between energy consumption, real income and prices: some new evidence from Asian energy dependent NICs based on a multivariate cointegration vector error correction approach.
  53. (1999). Panel stationarity with structural breaks: carbon emissions and GDP.
  54. (2010). Portugal’s Forests Losing Ability to Capture Carbon. Inter Press Service,
  55. (2006). Reassessing the environmental Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions: A robustness exercise.
  56. (2006). Response surfaces for an F-test for cointegration.
  57. (2010). Savings–investment correlation and capital outflow: the case of Pakistan.
  58. (1990). Statistical inference in instrumental variables regression with I(1) processes.
  59. (1995). Stoking the fires? CO2 emissions and economic growth,
  60. (2000). Structural analysis of vector error correction models with exogenous I(1) variables.
  61. (2002). Temporal aggregation and the power of cointegration tests: a monte carlo study.
  62. (2004). Testing for an Environmental Kuznets Curve in LatinAmerican Countries.
  63. (2008). The carbon dioxide emission and income: a temporal analysis of cross-country distributional patterns.
  64. (2007). The electricity consumption and GDP nexus for the Fiji islands.
  65. (2010). The emissions, energy consumption, and growth nexus: evidence from the commonwealth of independent states.
  66. (1997). The environmental Kuznets curve: An Empirical Analysis. Environment and Development Economics.
  67. (2003). The Impact of Population Pressure on Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Evidence from pooled cross-country data.
  68. (1992). The Inflexion Point of Manufacture Industries: International trade and environment, World Bank Discussion Paper,
  69. (1995). The politics of free-trade agreements.
  70. (2001). The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Pakistan. Asia Pacific Development
  71. (2000). The relationship between energy consumption, energy prices and economic growth: time series evidence from Asian Developing Countries.
  72. (2004). The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve.
  73. (2005). The saving and investment nexus for China: evidence from co-integration tests.
  74. (2005). Trade and the environmental Kuznets curve: is Southern Africa a pollution heaven?
  75. (2009). Urban energy use and carbon emissions from cities in China and policy implications.
  76. (1997). Working with Microfit 4.0: Interactive Econometric Analysis.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.