This article describes and analyzes the distribution of benefits to individuals from CETA programs, using data from a three-year study of CETA in 32 research sites. The data show that the poor and women receive increasingly fewer benefits from CETA. Nonwhites experience higher enrollment under CETA than under noncategorical programs. The poor, women, and nonwhites obtain fewer benefits from public service employment programs than from training and work experience programs. Economic conditions provide only a partial explanation of service patterns. Program design choices, administrator attitudes, and national policy and actions are also important. Some changes are recommended in methods of analyzing the need for employment and training programs.