Wind waves and elevated water levels together can cause flooding in low-lying coastal areas, where the water level may be a combination of mean sea level, tides and surges generated by storm events. In areas with a wide continental shelf a travelling external surge may combine with the locally generated surge and waves and there can be significant interaction between the propagation of the tide and surge. Wave height at the coast is controlled largely by water depth. So the effect of tides and surges on waves must also be considered, while waves contribute to the total water level by means of wave setup through radiation stress. These processes are well understood and accurately predicted by models, assuming good bathymetry and wind forcing is available. Other interactions between surges and waves include the processes of surface wind-stress and bottom friction as well as depth and current refraction of waves by surge water levels and currents, and some of the details of these processes are still not well understood. The recent coastal flooding in Myanmar (May 2008) in the Irrawaddy River Delta is an example of the severity of such events, with a surge of over 3 m exacerbated by heavy precipitation. Here, we review the existing capability for combined modelling of tides, surges and waves, their interactions and the development of coupled models
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