Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Complex Interplay Between Determinants of Pacing and Performance During 20 km Cycle Time Trials

By Andrew Renfree, Julia West, Mark Corbett, Clare Rhoden and Alan St Clair Gibson

Abstract

Purpose: This study examined the determinants of pacing strategy and performance during self paced maximal exercise. \ud \ud Methods: Eight well trained cyclists completed two 20 km time trials. Power output, RPE, positive and negative affect, and iEMG activity of the active musculature were recorded every 0.5km, confidence in achieving pre-exercise goals was assessed every 5 km, and blood lactate and pH were measured post-exercise. Differences in all parameters were assessed between fastest (FAST) and slowest (SLOW) trials performed. \ud \ud Results: Mean power output was significantly higher during the initial 90% of FAST, but not the final 10%, and blood lactate concentration was significantly higher and pH significantly lower following FAST. Mean iEMG activity was significantly higher throughout SLOW. RPE was similar throughout both trials, but participants had significantly more positive affect and less negative affect throughout FAST. Participants grew less confident in their ability to achieve their goals throughout SLOW. \ud \ud Conclusions: The results suggest that affect may be the primary psychological regulator of pacing strategy and that higher levels of positivity and lower levels of negativity may have been associated with a more aggressive strategy during FAST. Although the exact mechanisms through which affect acts to influence performance are unclear, it may determine the degree of physiological disruption that can be tolerated, or be reflective of peripheral physiological status in relation to the still to be completed exercise task

Topics: C600
Publisher: Human Kinetics
Year: 2012
OAI identifier: oai:nrl.northumbria.ac.uk:4482

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. A metabolic basis for impaired muscle force production and neuromuscular compensation during sprint cycling. doi
  2. Affect in sporting activities: A preliminary validation of the Worcester Affect Scale. Sport Science Review. doi
  3. Am I nearly there? The effect of anticipated running distance on perceived exertion and attentional focus.
  4. (1995). American College of Sports Medicine. Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. doi
  5. (1985). An introduction to Borg’s RPE-Scales.
  6. Athletes’ coping during competition: relationship of coping strategies with positive affect, negative affect, and performance-goal discrepancy. Psychol Sport Exerc. doi
  7. (1996). Concept of an extracellular regulation of muscular metabolic rate during heavy exercise in humans by psychophysiological feedback. doi
  8. (1998). Cortisol and affective responses to exercise. doi
  9. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. J Pers Soc Psychol. doi
  10. (1986). Effect of blood pH on peripheral and central signals of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc. doi
  11. Effect of pH on sensation and vastus lateralis electromyogram during cycle exercise.
  12. (1974). End-spurt following simple repetitive muscular movement. Percept Mot Skills. doi
  13. Evidence for complex system integration and dynamic neural regulation of skeletal muscle recruitment during exercise in humans. doi
  14. Exercising with reserve: Exercise regulation by perceived exertion in relation to duration of exercise and knowledge of endpoint. doi
  15. (1994). Heart rate responses during a 4-d cycle race. Med Sci Sports Exerc.
  16. Impact of starting strategy on cycling performance.
  17. (2008). Influence of pacing strategy on O2 uptake and exercise tolerance. Scand J Med Sci Sports. doi
  18. (1997). Measurement of mismeasurement of mood: Recurrent and emergent issues. J Pers Assess. doi
  19. (1989). Not what, but how one feels: the measurement of affect during exercise. J Sport Exerc Psychol.
  20. (1998). On the Self-Regulation of Behaviour. doi
  21. Pacing strategy during the initial phase of the run in triathlon: influence on overall performance. doi
  22. (1994). Pre-analytical considerations in pH/blood gas analysis.
  23. Pre-performance psychological states and performance in an elite climbing competition. doi
  24. Psychological crisis in a marathon and the buffering effects of self-verbalizations. doi
  25. (2004). Regulation of pacing strategies during successive 4-km time trials. Med Sci Sports Exerc. doi
  26. (1996). Relationship between self-efficacy, wrestling performance and affect prior to a competition. The Sport Psychol. doi
  27. St Clair Gibson A. Non-random fluctuations in power output during self-paced exercise. doi
  28. The anticipatory regulation of performance: The physiological basis for pacing strategies and the development of a perception-based model for exercise performance. doi
  29. The effect of anticipation during unknown or unexpected exercise duration on rating of perceived exertion, affect and physiological function. doi
  30. (2007). The effect of extrinsic motivation on cycle time trial performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. doi
  31. The importance of goal disengagement in adaptive self-regulation: When giving up is beneficial. Self Ident. doi
  32. The role of information processing between the brain and peripheral physiological systems in pacing and perception of effort. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.