This PhD thesis accounts for the legitimacy challenges faced by the state that are\ud specifically created by organized industrial workers through their anti-state unrest. It also relates \ud such legitimacy challenges to recurring regime breakdown in unconsolidated democracies. I thus \ud answer the question: how can we more fully account for labour-led legitimacy challenges to the \ud state that at key times contribute to regime breakdown in unconsolidated democracies? I build \ud on the dominant elite-driven explanations that are already emphasized in the existing theoretical \ud literature by highlighting bottom-up labour mobilization that has not been given sufficient \ud consideration.\ud Moreover, I have uniquely framed such bottom-up mobilization in terms of “shared norms” \ud in a very particular “moral economy” centred around development policy. These norms were in \ud part created by the state as part of its informal “legitimation project” with labour. Key to the \ud state-labour relationship within this moral economy is workers’ expectation of certain \ud subsistence provision from the ruling regime in return for its role in state-led industrial \ud production and national development. Such expectation of specific subsistence provision was \ud partly built up by the state itself through its own rhetoric and policies; but this also set up the \ud state to frequently lose legitimacy when such provision could not be delivered or maintained
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