Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The Duke of Newcastle's war : Walpole's ministry and the war against Spain, 1737-1742

By Philip Woodfine

Abstract

This thesis examines the last years of the Walpole ministry. It attempts to shed light on the\ud inner workings of that ministry through an examination of its foreign policy, exploring the\ud origins and impact of the 1739 war with Spain. This dissertation is the only extended\ud modem study of the Anglo-Spanish diplomacy in these years. It is the only work to give\ud adequate consideration both to the varying influence of British domestic pressures and to\ud Spanish concerns. The thesis attempts to treat Spain's negotiations as variable, contingent\ud on chance and on personalities, as well as on certain intractable beliefs and principles.\ud Events are viewed largely from the perspective of the centre, the handful of leading\ud ministers and diplomats who discussed and made political and diplomatic decisions. The\ud personalities of ministers both in Spain and England, their interactions and rivalries and\ud their differing views, are important to understanding how diplomacy worked. Though\ud concentrating mainly on such interactions, and particularly the growing rivalry between\ud Newcastle and Walpole, the thesis tries to show how influential others were. The inner\ud circle of British ministers was preoccupied with the voice of those `without doors', and\ud public opinion set limits to diplomacy even in Spain. The domestic context of British\ud foreign policy included also a developing popular patriotism.\ud \ud \ud The thesis contends that the Walpole ministry nearly succeeded in procuring a genuine\ud commercial peace with Spain, and that the reasons for failure did not arise exclusively\ud from domestic political clamour. Royal prestige and individual ministerial personalitites, in\ud both countries, affected the outcome at least as much. The full explanation of a complex\ud breakdown can only be found in a close attention to the chronology of negotiation. The\ud thesis is therefore mainly chronological in form. In each chapter, though, an attempt is\ud made to take up relevant themes and develop them with a less strict regard to chronology.\ud Some issues, such as the role of monarchy, and of public opinion, the press campaign and\ud Opposition tactics, the contribution of the South Sea Company, recur

Topics: D204, DA
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.hud.ac.uk:5980

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. 122 London Evening Post,
  2. 144 In 1744, Lord Hardwicke was proposing to the cabinet the same strategy to combat Carteret which the Opposition had practised in 1740-2, promising to bring in the Tories but without allowing than any real prospect of office:
  3. (1740). 147 An Epistle from a Noble Lord to Mr. Py
  4. 16' BL Add Ms 51390, f. 19, Hanbury-Williams to Stephen Fox,
  5. 169 Ample evidence exists to suggest that Vernon's own temperament, political animus and obstructive actions contributed largely to the failures of the expedition;
  6. (1738). 36/45-50 State Papers Domestic
  7. 64, same to same, doi
  8. (1990). A number of these medals, from the collection of the Museo Naval de Madrid, are reproduced in L. Suarez de Lezo, `Los Flecos de la Historia. Las Medallas del Almirante Vernon', Revista de Historia
  9. Add Ms 32692, if. 523-4, Hardwicke to Newcastle,
  10. Add Ms 32801, if. 356-8, Newcastle to Waldegrave, private and particular, cipher, to be opened by himself,
  11. Add Ms 35396, f. 98, Birch to Yorke,
  12. (1742). Add Ms 51390, f. 14, Charles Hanbury-Williams to Stephen Fox, nd [early
  13. Add Ms 9175, f. 110, `Scheme for an Association to redress Grievances and the Tyranny of a Minister',
  14. (1989). Admirals as Heroes: Patriotism & Liberty in Hanoverian England', doi
  15. (1965). British Naval Administration in the Age of Walpole doi
  16. Empire, Trade and Popular Politics in Mid-Hanoverian Britain: the Case of Admiral Vernon', doi
  17. (1984). Flecos de la Historia: Guardia en linea baja',
  18. (1980). Hanover and Great Britain 1740-1760', unpublished Ph.
  19. (1970). I,
  20. ibid., p. 243, same to same, 22
  21. (1982). In Defiance of Oligarchy. doi
  22. (1714). In Defiance of Oligarchy. The Tory Party doi
  23. (1968). Law and Honour among Eighteenth Century British Army Officers', Historical Journal, doi
  24. los The Second Part of Great Britain's MEMORIAL. Containing a Collection of the Instructions, Representations &c &c (London,
  25. Memoirs of the Administration of the Right Honourable Henry Pelham
  26. Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Sir Robert Walpole,
  27. (1992). Mighty to be Free. Censorship and the Press
  28. (1740). Miller] Are these Things So? doi
  29. (1994). Monamy's Marine Paintings for Vauxhall Gardens', doi
  30. Mss, 212/19, Sempill to Edgar,
  31. Mss, 214/50, memorial of Lord John Drummond to James,
  32. (1739). Mss, 216/111, `A scheme [by Thomas Carte] for restoring your Majesty to your own subjects',
  33. Mss, 220/128, James to Ormonde,
  34. (1890). Philippe Vet la cour de France (5 vols,
  35. (1989). Popular Politics in the Age of Walpole and Pitt doi
  36. (1984). Popular Politics in the Age of Walpole', doi
  37. (1982). Riot and Popular Jacobitism in Early Hanoverian England', doi
  38. (1740). s' The Expedition. An Ode
  39. (1740). s' The ministry called for a full list of the winds on each day in that period;
  40. (1989). The clearest short discussion is N. Rogers, Whigs and Cities.
  41. (1724). The Correspondence of the Dukes of Richmond and
  42. (1984). The Correspondence of the Dukes of Richmond and Newcastle, 1724-1750,
  43. (1975). The Duke of Newcastle doi
  44. (1991). The Life of Sarah Duchess ofMarlborough
  45. The London Tradesman (1747),
  46. (1984). The Most Corrupt Council in Christendom"; decisions on controverted elections, 1702-1742,
  47. (1953). The Navy as an
  48. (1986). The Patriot Opposition to Sir Robert Walpole: A Study doi
  49. (1990). The Rise of the
  50. (1958). The Vernon Papers, Navy Records Society,
  51. They Are; Being an Answer to Are these Things so? (1740), p. 3; see also The Champion,
  52. (1796). Thoughts on the Prospect of a Regicide Peace, in a series of Letters
  53. (1953). Vauxhall Gardens',
  54. We the underwritten Ministers Plenipotentiaries of his Britannick Majesty, and of his Catholick Majesty, by Virtue of our full Powers, have signed the present separate Articles, and have caused the Seals of our Arms to be affixed thereto.
  55. Wolterton (Walpole) Mss, Letters & Papers of Sir Robert Walpole (unfoliated), letter from Bordeaux, 1739, signed

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.