The geographical distribution of 49 mtDNA sequences from 22 localities in Southern Tuscany, Italy, was studied by molecular analysis of variance, by a new spatial autocorrelation statistic specifically designed for sequence data and by reconstructing genealogies of haplotypes. All these methods indicated a high homogeneity of populations. Nevertheless, genetic variability showed significant departure from equilibrium expectations, in agreement with the predicted effects of a population expansion. We suggest that a past population expansion that was probably associated with a migrational wave and with local gene flow between localities prevented spatial structuring in Southern Tuscany
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