Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Characterization of grewia gum, a potential pharmaceutical excipient

By Elijah I Nep and Barbara R Conway


Grewia gum was extracted from the inner stem bark of Grewia mollis and characterized by several techniques such as gas chromatography (GC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dilute solution viscometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogrametric analysis of the extracted samples. Spectroscopic techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and 1H and 13C NMR techniques were also used to characterize the gum. The results showed that grewia gum is a typically amorphous polysaccharide gum containing glucose, rhamnose, galactose, arabinose and xylose as neutral sugars. It has an intrinsic viscosity of 48.36 ± 0.37 dl/g and an average molecular weight of 5925 kDa expressed as the pullulan equivalent. The gum slowly hydrated in water, dispersing and swelling to form a highly viscous dispersion exhibiting pseudoplastic flow behaviour. The polysaccharide gum is thermally stable and may have application as stabilizer or suspending agent in foods, cosmetics and in pharmaceuticals. It may have application as a binder or sustained-release polymer matrix in tablets or granulations

Topics: Q1, RM
Publisher: International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council
Year: 2010
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. Adulteration identification of some fungal polysaccharides with SEM, XRD, IR and optical rotation: A primary approach. doi
  2. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). Official Methods of Analysis (15th Ed). Washington DC: doi
  3. (2007). Characterization and the properties of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. Var.senegal with enhanced properties (Acacia (sen) SUPERGUM ): Part 4.TM Spectroscopic characterization of Acacia Senegal var. Senegal and Acacia (sen) doi
  4. (2002). Characterization of chitin, chitosan and their carboxymethyl derivatives by differential scanning calorimetry. doi
  5. (2003). Dissolution kinetics of guar gum powders 2: Effects of concentration and molecular weight. doi
  6. (2008). Effect of grewia gum on the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablet formulations .
  7. (2006). Evaluation of the bioadhesive property of grewia gum in indomethacin tablet formulation in pig gastric mucus. doi
  8. (2007). Intrinsic Viscosities and Huggins Constants of Guar gum in Alkali Metal Chloride Solutions. doi
  9. mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablet containing acid treated grewia gum.
  10. (2000). Natural gums and modified natural gums as sustained-release carriers. doi
  11. Ocular bioadhesive delivery systems, in Leenaerts V; Gurny R (eds), Bioadhesive drug delivery systems.
  12. (2004). On the physicochemical and dielectric properties of glutaraldehyde cross-linked galactomannan-collagen films. Carbohydrate polymers 56: doi
  13. (2009). P h y s i c o c h e m i c a l a n d m e c h a n i c a l characterization of galactomannan from Mimosa scabrella: Effect of drying method. doi
  14. Plant mucilages XV. The main structural features of the backbone chain of paniculatan. doi
  15. Practical infrared spectroscopy of pectin substances.
  16. Release characteristics of diclofenac sodium from encapsulated natural gum mini-matrix formulations. doi
  17. (1980). Rheological properties and application of mesquite tree (Propolis juliflora) gum 1: Rheological properties of mesquite gum Solution. doi
  18. (2001). Some physicochemical properties of grewia gum.
  19. (2005). Structural analysis of polysaccharides, doi
  20. (2007). Suspensions and emulsions,
  21. (1985). The binding property of mucuna gum in sulphadimidine and chloroquine phosphate tablets.
  22. (1959). The chemistry of plant gums and mucilages. doi
  23. (1997). Thermal behaviour of galactomannan guar gum and its periodate oxidation products. doi
  24. (2004). Thermal studies on natural and modified gums. doi
  25. (2005). Understanding the physical properties of food polysaccharides, in Cui SW (ed), Food Carbohydrates: Chemistry, Physical Properties, and Applications. Taylor and Francis, doi
  26. (2006). Use of natural gums and cellulose derivatives in production of sustained release metoprolol tablets. doi
  27. (1996). Utilization of Hydrophilic gums for control of drug release from tablet formulation 1: Disintegration and dissolution behaviour. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.