(1971). 0 -137 inventory of a tagged liriodendron forest,
(1978). A model for the movement and loss of cs-137 in a small watershed,
(1971). A model has been developed by Wrenn
(1987). A study of the Långdendale valley and its ra ervoir indicated by Jones and Castle
(1987). A summary of Jones and Castle
(1978). A very useful model has been produced by Carlsson
(1973). Accumulation of fallout in soils and sediments in selected watersheds,
(1978). advect ion-dif fusion equations for sediment sol ids and a radioactive tracer. The model is complex and generally an improvement on previous models, incorporating bioturbation as well as diffusion. Refer ences A oyama. A
(1987). Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.
(1986). although on the 8 May quite high c oncen trations, comparable to those on 28-29 April were observed before they declined again : by 2 orders of magnitude (Derell,
(1975). analyses have also been made for vegetation along a contaminated stream length by Briese et aL
(1973). and Eakins and Cambray
(1983). Apphed Environmental Geochemistry,
(1986). Aquatic Environment Monitoring Report No.15; Radioactivity in swface and coastal waters of the British Isles. Monitoring of f allout f rom the Chernobyl accident, "MA FF, DFR", Lowestof t.
(1973). Aquifer since 1952. The aquifer is large and has a high transmissivity. This area was studied by Robertson and Barraclough
(1976). As stated in the introduction, and as will be elaborated in the following two sections, it seems clear from experimental evidence (Francis
(1986). Biology/Biota The following is a resume of the monitoring programme and resul ts following the Chernobyl reactor accident, as reported by Camplin et aL (
(1985). BIOS: a model to predict radionuclide transf er and doses to man following releases fr om geological repositories f or radioactive wastes,
(1971). C s in the watershed ran ged from 159 nCi/m2 under the oak hickory sites to 8.9 na hn 2 for the eroded (no vege ta tion) sites. - 1 5-Tab le 4 Concentrations of " ' C's under th e land uses of Power line watersh ed (f rom Ritch ie et at ,
(1986). Caesium activities for air and rainfall are given for
(1971). charadteristics of abandoned and Cultivated plots - bY Cline and 'Rickard
(1986). Chernobyl reactor accident; early estimate of radiation doses,
(1986). Comparative pathway analysis of radiocaesium in the Hudson river estuary, environmental measurements and regulatoty dose assessment models,
(1985). Contamination of surface water bodies after reactor accidents by the erosion of atmospherically deposited radionucl ides,
Control diagram and transf er coefi cients f or simulation of sp ecif ic activity fl ow in a hypothetical oligotrophic lake. Values of aif are indicated on arrows. Numbers are given in a f orm such Mat 1.9 (-2) is read as 1.9 x ./ --2.
(1987). Convective dispersion in perennial streams, Environmental and Engineering Division. April , 321-340. —44— Preston, A
(1975). Distr ibution of radiocacsium in vegetation along a contaminated stream, In: A ikcn,
(1985). Distribution of gamma exposure rates in a reactor effl uent streain flood plain system,
(1988). Draft tables of Cs concentrations and activities in ft sh and water,
(1986). Dynamic models for radionuclide transport in agricultural ecosystems; summary of results from a UK code comparison exercise,
(1987). Effects of temperature and the hydroxy aluminium interlayers on the adsorption of trace radioactive caesium by sediments near water cooled nuclear reactors.
(1987). Estimation of dispersion and first order by numerical routing,
(1975). Frequency distributions of radiocaesium in soil and biota In:
(1982). from a study by Cambray
from weapo n tests was 200 Bq m 2 per 1000 mm annual rainfall, 75% of which was retained in the top 15 cm of soil. Ru n-of accounts, therefore , for on ly a small proportion of the caesium.
(1973). From work on the cycling of caesium in Flor ida,
(1984). G r ou ndwa ter Effects of groundwater composition and redox potential (Eli) on radionuclide sorption and desorption of .the geologic solids were studied by Barney
in air and rain; Results to the middle of 1964, medical sciences division.
(1966). in air and rain; results to the middle of 1965. medical sciences division,
(1986). in the tropopause of the Northern Heinisphere was 7 days
(1985). Initial observations of fallout from the reactor accident at Chernobyl.
(1987). It is also apparent from
(1985). It is observed by Schu lz
(1985). Leach ing experiments, reported by Frissel an d Pennders
(1976). m c accumulation Caesium from water by the brown trout (Sa lmo trutta) and with plaice and rays. i .
(1971). Measured Conc.n Area Total A ctivity
(1988). Measurement of caesium and strontium diffusion in biotite gneiss.
(1979). Methodology f or evaluating the radiological consequences of radimmelide efi luents released in normal operations. NRP13, Commisarim A L'Energie A tomique.
(1986). Modelling radiotracers in sediments, comparison with observations in Lake Huron and
(1988). Models and data to predict radiocuclide concentrations in freshwater fi sh following atmospheric deposition: summary of progress to mid-1988.
(1988). Models and data to predict radionuclide concentrations in fr eshwater fi sh f ollowing atmospheric deposition; Swnmary of progress to mid 1988, National Radiological Protection Board,
(1973). Observations on lake sediments using f allout Cs-I 37 as a tracer.
(1959). On the soil chemistry of caesium.
(1979). One resuspension model (NRPB,CEA: CEC
(1986). produced a comprehensive model for the activi ty of radionuclides in sedimenis. 11m model is based on the
(1982). Pu-240, am-241, and Cs-137 in soil in west Cumbria and a marit ime effect, Environmental and medical sciences division,
(1973). Radioactive and chemical waste transport in groundwater at the national reactor testing station, Idaho; 20 year case history and digital model. Underground waste nianagerncnt and artifi cial recharge,
(1987). Radioactive caesium form Chernobyl in the Greenland ice sheet,
(1964). Radioactive f allout Environmental
(1967). Radioactive f allout in air and rain; resul ts to the middle of 1967. Environmental and medical scienccs division, A ERE, Harwell,
(1987). Radioactive f allout in air and rain; results f or
(1967). Radioactive f allout in air and rain; results to the middle of 1966, Environmental and medical sciences division, A ERE,
(1973). Radioactive f allout in air and rain; results to the middle of 1973, "Environmental and medical sciences division, A ERE",
(1987). Radioactive monitoring of following the Chernobyl accident, North Wcst Watcr ,
(1971). Radioactive Sr. and Cs in cult ivated and abandoned fi eld plots.
(1988). Radioactivity report - for samples 1986-1988. Nor th West Water,
(1975). Radiocaesium cycling in vegetation and soil, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, 462 In: A iken.
(1984). Radionuclide adsorption on low exchange capacity Hanford site soils. Soil science and plant analysis 15.
(1987). ratios init ially less than two for Chernobyl, 13-15 for BNFL Sellafi eld discharges: —25— T he Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on the aquatic enviw nraent (marine and freshwater) has also been studied by M A FF
(1971). Recent measurements of Cs-137 Lugo, A
(1975). Redistr ibution of Cs-137 in southeaster n watersheds, 452, In: A i ken,
shows the of cumulative deposition of Cs-137 (Cambray et al. 1987)41 and it is apparent that until the Chernobyl accident of 1986 there was little significant deposit ion of Cs-137 since the weapons testing of the 1960's.
(1978). Simulation analysis of the concentration process of trace metals by aquatic organisms from the viewpoint of nutrition ecology,
(1985). Studies of environmental raioactivity in Cumbria: l 'art 6: the chronology of discharges from BNFL Sellafield as recorded in lake sediments. Environmental and medical sciences division, A ERE,
Subsequently concentrations of Cs-137 in rainfall continue to decrease un til in 1973 activity is less than 2% of the maximum of 1963/64.
(1973). T ranspo rt Cs in reservoir sediments appears to or iginate from fallout onto catchments and watersheds. T he Cs is adsorbed by clays and organic matter in soils, and this is then eroded and deposited as sediment. McHenry et at
(1986). t which competes wi th Cs+ for adsorption sites. This is corroborated by the observations of Linslata
(1971). Table 5 Concentrations of 137Cs in the sediments of Powerline watersized (f rom Ritchie et at ,
(1975). Table 6 Model f or the distribution of
(1984). Table 7 Freundlich constants f or Radionuclide sorption (molar bas is) on Sands tone(f rom Barney,
(1973). Tables of Physical Constants 14th Edition, Longmans, London. —43— of radioactive its comparison rate coefi cient the water cycle 11.W.E.M., 1, and Chemical Kirchner,
(1986). The Chernobyl reactor accident and the aquatic environment of the U.K.; a fi sheries viewpoint,
(1986). the concentrations of Cs-137 remained constant at 2.5 Bq m-3 in air.
(1971). The following is a summary of a paper hy Lerman
(1988). three orde rs of magnitude greater than in dry areas. Obse rvations confi rm the overwhelming predominance of precipitation scavenging over dry dep osition for small particles (Clark,
(1984). Trace distr ibut ion coefi cients (kd values) for Cs, Sr and Co sorption were found by Routson et a
(1971). Transport of radionuclides in sediments, 936,
(1963). Values from Japanese rive rs imply that 1.3% of Cs-137 and 7.2% of Sr-90 from the land surface which originated from fallout would be washed into rivers
(1988). Wet and dry deposition . of Chernobyl - releases,
(1963). Xa)x0 + Xb) t ] From calculations using this model for stront ium, and using Yamagata's