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Nonlinear Dirac equation solitary waves in external fields

By Franz G. Mertens, Niurka R. Quintero, Fred Cooper, Avinash Khare and Avadh Saxena

Abstract

We consider nonlinear Dirac equations (NLDE's) in the 1+1 dimension with scalar-scalar self-interaction g2κ+1(Ψ¯¯¯Ψ)κ+1 in the presence of various external electromagnetic fields. We find exact solutions for special external fields and we study the behavior of solitary-wave solutions to the NLDE in the presence of a wide variety of fields in a variational approximation depending on collective coordinates which allows the position, width, and phase of these waves to vary in time. We find that in this approximation the position q(t) of the center of the solitary wave obeys the usual behavior of a relativistic point particle in an external field. For time-independent external fields, we find that the energy of the solitary wave is conserved but not the momentum, which becomes a function of time. We postulate that, similarly to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE), a sufficient dynamical condition for instability to arise is that dP(t)/dq̇ (t)0, so, when instabilities do occur, they are due to a different source. We investigate the accuracy of our variational approximation using numerical simulations of the NLDE and find that, when the forcing term is small and we are in a regime where the solitary wave is stable, that the behavior of the solutions of the collective coordinate equations agrees very well with the numerical simulations. We found that the time evolution of the collective coordinates of the solitary wave in our numerical simulations, namely the position of the average charge density and the momentum of the solitary wave, provide good indicators for when the solitary wave first becomes unstable. When these variables stop being smooth functions of time (t), then the solitary wave starts to distort in shape.MICINN FIS2011-24540Junta de Andalucia No. FQM207, No. FQM-00481, No. P06-FQM-01735, and No. P09-FQM-464

Publisher: 'American Physical Society (APS)'
Year: 2012
DOI identifier: 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046602
OAI identifier: oai:idus.us.es:11441/23526

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