Research has demonstrated time to be an important variable within an organization at both an individual and group level of analysis (Francis-Smythe & Robertson, 1999; Gevers et al, 2006; Rutoski et al, 2007). In fact a number of researchers have called for further work to be done in this domain (Ancona, Goodman, Lawrence, & Tushman, 2001; George & Jones, 2000). In response to this call, this paper will explore the role of time in leadership. Given the increased interest into leadership that has prevailed over the past few years, it is somewhat surprising that there is a limited understanding of how time permeates leadership. Moreover, the importance organizations attach to time is only too clear when organizational economic goals and measures of performance (such as monthly targets, productivity measures) are considered. However, organizations have limited capability to understand how time impacts in everyday work practices. This paper will present an account of time in leadership by introducing a model of Temporal Intelligence (TI). This model in current developmental progress integrates empirical and conceptual work to represent an individual difference factor in regards to a leader’s behavioural awareness to different dimensions of time in workplace processes and behavioural responses to this awareness. There is concern within the contemporary research arena that a preponderance of attention is directed towards the outcomes of leadership effectiveness rather than relevant individual characteristics (Gawith & Flaxman, 2007; Judge & Bono, 2000; Rubin et al. 2005). The importance of operationizing leadership effectiveness as a research variable is reflected in the end-goal of this project. At the same time it is also recognised there is a need to identify a leader’s temporally related individual characteristics that may potentially provide a fruitful basis for explaining leadership as a phenomenon and predicting effectiveness; this has clear implications on selection and development
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