The performance of microphone arrays outdoors is influenced by the environmental conditions. Numerical simulations indicate that, while horizontal arrays are hardly affected, direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation with vertical arrays becomes biased in presence of ground reflections and sound speed gradients. Turbulence leads to a huge variability in the estimates by reducing the ground effect. Ground effect can be exploited by combining classical source localization with an appropriate propagation model (ground effect inversion). Not only does this allow the source elevation and range to be determined with a single vertical array but also it allows separation of sources which can no longer be distinguished by far field localization methods. Furthermore, simulations provide detail of the achievable spatial resolution depending on frequency range, array size and localization algorithm and show a clear advantage of broadband processing. Outdoor measurements with one or two sources confirm the results of the numerical simulations
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