Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

An analysis of social and cultural changes in rural Iran, with special reference to the impact of cultural factors on educational change

By Hossein Godazgar


The world was shocked by the Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1979 because it was unexpected and out of keeping with the deposed Shah's attempts at secular modernisation. This thesis attempts to make sociological sense of the implications of the Revolution for education in Iran in terms of ideological influences. \ud The research reported in this thesis attempts to discover the nature of the social and cultural changes that occurred following the 1979 Revolution. Adapting Max Weber's interpretative approach, it focuses on the changing patterns of shared meanings and social relations in schools in one area of North West Iran. Taking a deliberately one-sided approach to educational change, this thesis isolates the impact of Islamic ideology on schools in the area where ethnographic fieldwork was conducted in 1995-96. Interviews, participant observation in schools, questionnaires and analysis of official documents were the chosen methods of research. The aim was to discover how Islamic ideology has been promulgated and how it has affected the day-to-day social relations of school teachers, pupils and administrators as well as their relations with parents and local authority officials.\ud The main findings not only confirm the pervasiveness of Islamic ideology in Iranian schools but also document its influence over matters such as curriculum design and delivery, the segregation of the sexes in schools, and the teachers' conditions of work and professional development. Nevertheless, there is also evidence that the stated aims of educational reform were not always achieved and that some changes were ironic. The findings also showed that the recent history of change in Iranian schools calls for a flexible understanding of such notions as modernity, tradition, patrimonialism, and bureaucracy. Iran has certainly tried to modernise its educational system since 1979 but it has done so in ways which challenge much of the received wisdom about modernisation processes

Topics: LA, DS
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1974). (13533). Nezam-e Hoqug-e Zan dar Islam (The Policy of Women's Rights in Islam). Tehran: Dafter-e Nashr-e Farhang-e Esland.
  2. (1991). (1370). Usul vaAlabani-eAmuzesh va
  3. (1992). (1371). Dar-amadi har Makateh va Nazaryve-have Jama'eh-shenasi (An Introduction to the Sociological Theories and Schools). Mashad:
  4. (1997). (1376). 'sima-ye a'arab dar ketabha-ye darsi-ye iran' (Arabs' Faces
  5. (edited and introduced by H Katouzian)1988. Musaddiq's Memoirs. doi
  6. (1962). A 'rheory of Collective Behaviour. London: Routlege & Kegan Paul.
  7. (1995). A Historical Comparison of Ideology
  8. (1995). After Khomeini. The Iranian Second Republic. doi
  9. (1988). Ali Shari'ati: Ideologue of the Iranian Revolution'. doi
  10. (1991). Amuzesh va Parvaresh dar Enzelestan va Veilz: az,
  11. (1980). An Historical Perspective of the Cultural Influences on Curriculum in Iranian Education with Emphasis on the Period of 1900-1980'. Unpublished Ph.
  12. (1998). An Islamic Utopian: A Political Biogra hy of Ali Shari'ati.
  13. (1971). Arabi harave Sal-e Paniom-e Adah (Arabic Literature for Year-eleven Humanities Pupils). Tehran: Ministry of Education.
  14. (1993). Arabi-e Sal-e Sevvom-e Dabiristan, AdabiYat va Ulurne Ensani (Arabic Literature for Year-eleven Humanities Pupils). Teliran: Ministry of Education.
  15. (1373). Ashenaei ba Falsafeh-ve E. slami barave Sal-e Chaharom-e Motavasseteh, Adabivat va Uluin-e E nsani (Acquaintance with Islamic Philosophy for Year-twelve Humanities Pupils). Tehran: Ministry of Education.
  16. (1964). Basic Concepts in Socigjogv.
  17. (1993). Binesh-e Eslaini-eSal-e Sevvom-e Dabiristan (Islamic Education for Year-eleven Pupils). Tehran: Ministry of Education.
  18. (1993). Class, Politics, and Ideology in the Iranian Revolution. doi
  19. (1990). Clercs et intellectuels dans la Republique islamique d'Ir, -m'.
  20. Dabb-istan (Sociology for Year-nine pupils). Tehran: Nlinistr), or taitication.
  21. (1980). Dependency and Education: An Analysis of the Development of Iranian Education since World War 11'. Unpublished Ph.
  22. (1991). DictionaLy of Sociolpgy. doi
  23. (1992). Education and the culture of politics in the Islamic Republic of Iran'.
  24. (1993). Executive Affairs for the New System of High School Education [omur-e ejraei-e nezam-ejadid-e amuzesh-e motavasseteh
  25. (1996). Feminism and Islam in Iran'. In doi
  26. (1982). Field Research: A Sourcebook and Field Manual. doi
  27. (1989). Fleeting tile Iron Cage. Culture, Politicsand 'Modernity in the Thought of Max Weber.
  28. (1993). Foundations of Education in Iran and Education after the Cultural Revolution of 1980'. Unpublished Ph.
  29. (1991). From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. New Edition. doi
  30. (1978). From Mobilisation to Revolution. doi
  31. (1377). Gozar az Populism be Clientelism clar Iran: Handparvari; Moshakhkhaseh-ye Ghodral-e Siasi (Passing from Populism to Clientelism in Iran: Clientelism; A Character of Political Power)'.
  32. (1984). History of Iranian Education: Influence of Islam and the West'. Unpublished Ph.
  33. (1990). Ideology and Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran'. doi
  34. (1988). Imam Khomeini, 1902-1962: The Pre-Revolutionary Years'.
  35. (1993). Inte[preting the Field. Accounts of Ethnography. Oxford:
  36. (1988). Introduction: Musaddiq and the Nationalisation of Iranian Oil'. In M. Musaddiq (edited and introduced by Homa Katouzian) Musaddiq's Memoirs.
  37. (1986). Introduction'. doi
  38. (1992). Iran After Khomeini. doi
  39. (1992). Iran and the Cold War: The Azerbaiian Crisis of 1946. Cambridge:
  40. (1982). Iran Between Two Revolutions. doi
  41. (1989). Iran in the Twentieth CentuEy: A Political History. Boulder Lynne Rienner Publishers. doi
  42. (1996). Iran Statistical Yearbook 1375
  43. (1985). Iran Under the Ayatollahs. London, Melbourne and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  44. (1980). Iran Under the Safavids. Cambridge: doi
  45. (1986). Iranian Foreign Policy since 1979: Internationalism and Nationalism in the Islamic Revolution'.
  46. (1988). Iranian Revolutions in Comparative Perspective'. doi
  47. (1982). Islam and Modemity: Transformation of an Intellectual Tradition. Chicago and London:
  48. (1994). Islam and the Post-Revolutionary State in Iran. doi
  49. (1978). Jama ýz-shenasi-e Sal-e Avval-e Dabiristan (Sociology for Year-nine Pupils). Tehran: Ministry of Education.
  50. (1978). Khordacý. Ifainmaelt-ve Athar (The Collection or Works).
  51. (1993). Khorneinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic.
  52. (1354). Mahani-e Falsafeh haraj, eSabe Sheshoin-ejelahi (Introductory Philosophy for Year-twelve Humanities Pupils). 'rehran: Ministry of Education.
  53. (1990). Max Weber's Construction of Social TheoKy. doi
  54. (1979). Max Weber's Vision of History. E-thicsand Methods. doi
  55. Modem Social Theory: From Parsons to Habermas. 2nd ed. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
  56. (1989). Moonlighting Among Iranian Teachers'.
  57. (1988). Philosophy of Education in Postrevolutionary Iran'. doi
  58. (1983). Piety and Politics: Religion and the Rise of Absolutism in Enaland, Wurttemberg and Prussia. Cambridge: doi
  59. (1967). Planning and Development in Iran.
  60. (1993). Populism'. In
  61. (1973). Possibilities and Limitations of Functional Literacy: the Iranian Experience.
  62. (1962). Preface to a Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy'. doi
  63. (1990). Reading Ethnographic Research: A Critical Guide.
  64. (1995). Regime legitimacy and high-school textbooks'.
  65. (1989). Religion and Advanced Industrial Society. London and doi
  66. (1980). Religion and Politics in Contemporgy Iran. doi
  67. (1982). Religion and Politics in Iran: ShPism firom Quietism to Revolution. New Haven:
  68. (1982). Religion and revolution in Iran'. doi
  69. (1969). Religion and State in Modem Iran.
  70. (1985). Religion, political order and societal change with special reference to Shiite Islam'. doi
  71. (1973). Religious Organisation. doi
  72. (1993). Researching Social Life. doi
  73. (1977). Resource Mobilisation and Social Movements: A Partial Theory'. doi
  74. (1983). Resource Mobilisation Theory and the Study of Social Movements'. doi
  75. (1956). Revitalisation Movenients'.
  76. (1975). Revolution and Collective Violence'. doi
  77. (1981). Roots of Revolution: An Interpretive History of Modem Iran. New Haven and London: doi
  78. (1973). Social Conflicts and Social Movements. Englewood Cliffs, doi
  79. (1979). Social Origins of Educational Systems. doi
  80. (1989). Social Origins of the Iranian Revolution. doi
  81. (1987). Some Events of Students' Movements".
  82. (1986). Soviet Attitudes toward ShFism and Social Protest'.
  83. (1985). State Power and the Strength of Civil Society in tile Southern Cone of Latin America'. In Peter B. Evans et al. Bringing the State Back In. New York- doi
  84. (1982). Statements from Islamic Leaders'. In A. Tabari and N. Yeganeh (compiled)
  85. (1993). States, and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, doi
  86. (1997). Street Politics, Poor People's Movements in Iran. doi
  87. (1968). Ta linial-e Dini harave Sal-e hinioni-e Dahiristan (Religious Education for Year-eleven Pupils). Tehran: Ministry or i,. ducation.
  88. (1974). The Age of Bureaucracy. Perspectives on the Political Sociology of Max Weber. doi
  89. (1988). The Eagle and the Lion: The Tragedy of American-Iranian Relations. New Haven and London: doi
  90. (1986). The Egyptian Opposition on the Iranian Revolution'.
  91. (1990). The Ethnographic Inlagination. Textual Constnictions of Realitv.
  92. (1985). The Heavenly Contract: Ideology and Organisation in PreRevolutionaKy Puritanism. doi
  93. (1983). The Iranian Revolution in Comparative Perspective'. doi
  94. (1984). The Limits of Rationality: An Essay on the Social and Moral Thought of Max Weber. doi
  95. (1994). The Making of Iran's Islamic Revolution: From Monarchy to Islamic Republic. 2nd ed. doi
  96. (1991). The Pahlavi Autocracy: Riza Shah, 1921-1941'. doi
  97. (1966). The Persian Revolution of doi
  98. (1990). The Policy of the Reagan Administration toward Iran'.
  99. (1991). The Politics of Nationalism and Ethnicity. doi
  100. (1979). The Problem of Sovereignty in an Itlina Ashari ("Twelver") Shi'i State'. Middle East Review (summer):
  101. (1971). The Protestant 1--, tliic and the Spirit of Capitalism. I doi
  102. (1983). The Role of the Clergy in Modem Iranian Politics'. In Nikki It.
  103. (1972). The Roots of Ulama Power in Modem Iran'. doi
  104. (1976). The Shah's White Revolution- Education and Reform in Iran'. doi
  105. (1988). The Socialisation of Schoolchildren in the Islamic Republic or Iran: A Study of the Revolution in Values in Iranian Education'.
  106. (1968). The Sociology of doi
  107. (1990). The state and Khomeini's Islamic order'. doi
  108. (1994). The Status of Women and Female Children in Iran: an Update from the 1986 census'.
  109. (1988). The Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran. doi
  110. (1993). Theology of Discontent: The Ideological Foundation of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. doi
  111. (1984). Traditionalism in Twentieth-Century Iran'.
  112. (1990). Venseignement de la religion dans les 6coles d'dtat en Iran'.
  113. (1974). Weber and Islam. doi
  114. (1994). Why Fundamentalism? Iranian Women and Their Support for Islam. University of York: York Working Papers
  115. (1997). Women and Fundamentalism in Iran'. In
  116. (1987). Women, Marriage and the State in Iran'.
  117. (1994). Women's Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran".

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.