Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Managing the cross-industry networks of the audiovisual sector: a perspective from the independent screen productions in the UK and Taiwan

By Hsiao-Ling Chung


The thesis is a qualitative account of the much neglected issues of the bottom-up, and interconnected organization of the Cross-Industry Network (CIN) phenomena within the Audiovisual Sector (AVS). The aims are achieved by exploring the why and how of the independent screen content producers in developing CIN during the production process. By conceptualizing the CIN phenomenon as a Complex Adaptive System (CAS), I used its theories as analogies to analyze the multi-case and multi-level studies conducted at two scenarios of independent TV production sector in the UK/ the developed, and the independent film production sector in Taiwan/the developing. My research produced the following four conclusions.\ud 1. From Top-Down Industry Disintegration to Bottom-up Production Reconfiguration The industrial disintegration of the media industry has resulted in the reconfiguration of content production networks and intense self-adaptation of creative producers who are facing multi-directional connections within the CIN during their production process. Such adaptation reveals tensions between the producers’ self-perception as ‘independent’ and ‘creative’ producers and their networking decisions and actions.\ud 2. From Managing the Creative Project to Managing the Creative and Commercial Venture The evolution of the CIN in the creative and media production is not entirely top-down/linear/serial, but more accurately, bottom-up/ non-linear/parallel. These internal self-organizing dynamics enable the production network to radiate outwardly, which induces trade-offs between and beyond commercial and creative priorities.\ud 3. From Distribution-led Value System to Production-led Microcosm The production process has evolved its own diverse CIN, involving different types of relationships, a higher degree of complexity and structural tensions inherent in the value-creating system. Such production-led networking functions are the most fundamental source for developing broader CIN and the economic return for creative producers.\ud 4. From Network Adaptation to Complex Adaptive System\ud The networking activities of independent and creative producers radiate and interact outwards to connect and affect all levels of the network, resulting in unexpected directions and complex collaborations. In particular, the elements of multi-directional adaptation and tensions of the involved network actors have an important impact on the emergence and organization of the network.\ud The main contributions of the research are firstly to have taken a bottom-up analysis by integrating the micro-level organizational complexity of the independent production into the theorizing about the AVS; and secondly, to have placed the intangible values and real practice of creative producers at the centre of the network study

Topics: PN1990, PN1993
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1979). (2nd ed.) The Social Psychology of Organizing.
  2. (2005). (2nd) The Independent Film Producer's Survival Guide: A Business and Legal Sourcebook. Schirmer Trade Books.
  3. (2007). (5 th ed ) Filmmakers and Financing: Business Plans for Independents.
  4. (2005). (ed.) Creative Industries.
  5. (1988). (ed.) The Nature of Creativity: Contemporary Psychological Perspectives. Cambridge:
  6. (2005). (ed) Memorabilia: The International Forum on Creative Production and Global Marketing for Chinese Film. Taipei: Government Information Office.
  7. (1995). (ed) The Studio System.
  8. (2007). (eds.) The Economic Regulation of Broadcasting Markets. Cambridge:
  9. (2004). 100 American Independent Films.
  10. (1985). A Dissipative Structure Model of Organization Transformation.
  11. (2003). A Handbook of Cultural Economics.
  12. (2001). A hybrid agglomeration? The development of a satellite-marshallian industrial district in Vancouver's film industry.
  13. (1988). A model of creativity and innovation in organizations.
  14. (1992). A model of industrial network,
  15. (2001). A new era or a recurring pattern? An analysis of current trends
  16. (2002). A new map of Hollywood: The production and distribution of American motion pictures.
  17. (2003). A structural analysis of media convergence: Cross-industry mergers and acquisitions in the information industries.
  18. (1992). Active efflux mechanisms for antimicrobial resistance.
  19. (1975). Adaptation in natural and artificial systems.
  20. (1997). Adaptation on Rugged Landscapes.
  21. (1997). Adaptive Learning in Organizations: A system dynamics-based exploration.
  22. (1996). Adjusting to the new global economy: Hollywood in the 1990s,
  23. Advisory Council (BASC)(2005) New Business Models for Audiovisual Content. Report by the BSAC for UK Presidency Creative Economy Conference.
  24. (2006). American Independent Cinema: An Introduction. Edinburgh:
  25. (1994). An Expanded Sourcebook Qualitative Data Analysis. Thousand Oaks:
  26. and Grisogono A.M.(2005) Defining and Detecting Emergence in Complex Networks.
  27. and Somers, M.(2006) Organizations as complex adaptive systems: Implications of complexity theory for leadership research.
  28. (1991). Artificial adaptive agents in economic theory.
  29. (1987). Artificial Life.
  30. (1995). At Home in the Universe: the Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity.
  31. (2004). Audio-visual and telecommunications services: A review of definitions under WTO law, pp357-389
  32. (2001). Audiovisual Policy in Europe: the Regional Dimension: Report on a Four Nation Case Study (Ireland, United Kingdom, France, and Germany). Strasbourg, European Audiovisual Observatory.
  33. (1992). Autogenesis: A perspective on the process of organizing.
  34. (2003). Between Hierarchies and Markets: The Logic and Limits of Network Forms of Organization. Oxford:
  35. (1996). Big Picture, Small Screen: the Relations Between Film and Television:
  36. (1996). British television and film: The making of a relationship,
  37. (1994). Broadcasting and Audio-visual Policy in the European Single Market:
  38. (2000). broadcasting and data processing 1981-1996. in Sawhney H.
  39. (1999). Broadcasting: Television and radio,
  40. (2004). Building sustainable change capability.
  41. (2004). Building theories of project management: Past research, questions for the future.
  42. (2003). Capabilities in motion: New organizational forms and the reshaping of the Hollywood movie industry.
  43. (1999). Change and complementarities in the new competitive landscape: A European panel study,
  44. (1994). Chaos, Management and Economics: The Implications of Non-linear Thinking. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.
  45. (1987). Chaos: Making a New Science.
  46. (1999). Cinema of Outsiders. The Rise of American Independent Film.
  47. (1998). Clusters and the New Economics of Competitiveness.
  48. (2001). Co-evolution of entrepreneurial careers, institutional rules and comprehensive dynamics in American film:
  49. (2003). Co-evolutionary dynamics within and between firms: From evolution to co-evolution.
  50. (2001). Coevolution of firm capabilities and industry competition: Investigating the music industry 1877-1997,
  51. (2000). Coevolving.
  52. (1991). Comparative economic organization: The analysis of discrete structural alternatives.
  53. (1998). Competing on the Edge: Strategy as Structured Chaos.
  54. (2007). Competition policy and sector-specific economic media regulation: And never the twain shall meet.
  55. (2003). Competition, cultural variety and global governance: The case of the UK audiovisual System. Report by Hamburgisches Welt-Wirtschafts-Archiv (HWWA)
  56. (1985). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance.
  57. (2007). Complexity and adaptivity in supply networks: Building supply network theory using a complex adaptive systems perspective.
  58. (1996). Complexity and Creativity in Organizations.
  59. (2006). Complexity and Social movements: Multitudes at the Edge of Cchaos. London;
  60. (2001). Complexity theory and management practice. Science as Culture. Working Paper Series. London School of Economics.
  61. (1999). Complexity theory and organization science. Organization Science:
  62. (1998). Complexity Theory and the Social Sciences: An Introduction.
  63. (1999). Complexity theory in organizational science: Seizing the promise or becoming the fad.
  64. (2004). Complexity, Organizations and Change. London and
  65. (1992). Complexity: Life at the Edge of Chaos.
  66. (1992). Complexity: the Emerging Science At the Edge of Order and Chaos.
  67. (1994). Complexity.
  68. (1991). Computation at the edge of chaos: phase-transitions and emergent computation. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena
  69. (1996). Concentration and economics of multiformity in the communication industries.
  70. (1999). Conditioned emergence: A dissipative structures approach to transformation.
  71. (2004). Contemporary American Independent Film: From the Margins to the Mainstream.
  72. (1998). Content as a New Growth Industry. Report presented to the Working Party on the Information Economy Meeting. Ofcom
  73. (1998). Convergence in the information industries.
  74. (2004). Convergence: A reality check. pp311-322 in Geradin D.and Luff.
  75. (1996). Convergence: Integrating Media, Information & Communicating. Thousand Oaks,
  76. (1987). Corporate Strategy.
  77. (2005). Creative cities,
  78. (2004). Creative clusters: Towards the governance of the creative industries production system?
  79. (2000). Creative Industries: Contracts Between Arts and Commerce.
  80. (2000). Cross-border mergers and acquisitions: their role in industrial globalization, Working Chapter
  81. (2006). Cultural districts and their role in developed and developing countries ,
  82. (1992). Development strategies in the audiovisual industries: The case of north east England.
  83. (1994). Developmental processes of cooperative interorganizational relationships.
  84. (1997). Diversity or divide? In search for flexible specialization in the UK television industry.
  85. (2007). Doing and Writing Qualitative Research (2nd ed.).
  86. (2005). Doing Qualitative Research. London: Sage Small and Medium Enterprises Administration,
  87. (2004). Down and Dirty: the Rise of Independent Film.
  88. (2000). Dynamic capabilities: what are they?
  89. (2005). Dynamics of relationships and networks: Creation, maintenance and destruction as managerial challenges.
  90. (2001). Economics and Culture. Cambridge :
  91. (1994). Economies of Signs and Space.
  92. (1987). Educating the Reflective Practitioner.
  93. (1999). Emergence as a construct: History and issues. Emergence-
  94. (2005). Emergence versus self-organization: Different concepts but promising when combined, pp1-15 in Engineering Self-Organising Systems.
  95. (1998). Emergence: from Chaos to Order.
  96. (2003). Emergent order in firms: Complexity science vs. the entanglement trap, pp 95-112
  97. (2001). Empirical research in co-evolutionary processes of strategic adaptation and change: The promise and the challenge.
  98. (2006). Entrepreneurs’ intentions and partnership towards innovation: Evidence from the Japanese film industry.
  99. (1995). Ethnography: Principles in Practice. London :
  100. (1995). Evolution or transformation: A critique and alternative to punctuated equilibrium.
  101. (1994). Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations.
  102. (2004). Evolutionary economics perspectives on the regional-national international dimensions of biotechnology innovations.
  103. (1996). Evolutionary perspectives on strategy.
  104. (1989). Exploring Complexity.
  105. (1990). Fifties Television: The Industry and Its Critics.
  106. (1996). Flexibility, post-fordism and the music industries.
  107. (2000). Flexible films?
  108. (1987). Flexible specialization and regional industrial agglomerations: The US film industry.
  109. (1993). Flexible specialization in Hollywood: A Response to Aksoy and Robin.
  110. (1995). From complexity to perplexity.
  111. (1998). From Embedded Knowledge to Embodied Knowledge: New Product Development as Knowledge Management.
  112. (2003). From Local to Global: the Initial Exploration to the Globalization of the Taiwanese Cinema. Paper presented at the ‘2003 Focus Taiwan Cinema Conference’. Motion Picture Department,
  113. (2003). From London to Los Angeles: A comparison of local labour market processes in the US and UK film industries.
  114. (1998). From road-showing to saturation release: Majors, independents, and marketing/ distribution innovations,
  115. (1968). General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications: London :
  116. (1986). Getting in, getting on, getting out, and getting back.
  117. (2001). Global City-Regions: Trends, Theory, Policy:
  118. (2001). Global Hollywood.
  119. (1997). Global Television and Film: An Introduction to the Economics of the Business.
  120. (1997). Green Chapter on the Convergence of the Telecommunications, Media and Information Technology Sectors, and the Implications for Regulation Towards an Information Society Approach. Available at European Investment Bank
  121. (1999). Harnessing Complexity: Organizational Implications of a Scientific Frontier.
  122. (1995). Hidden Order: How Adaptation Build Complexity.
  123. (1992). Hollywood for the 21st century: Global competition for critical mass in image markets.
  124. (2004). How does adaptability drive firm innovativeness?
  125. (1994). How the Leopard Changed its Spots: The Evolution of Complexity.
  126. (1997). Images of organization.
  127. (1998). Independent features: Hopes and dreams, pp.307-327 in Lewis,
  128. (1992). Industrial Networks: A New View of Reality.
  129. (1995). Inquiring into the temporary organization: New directions for project management research.
  130. (2006). Inside Media Organizations: Production, Autonomy and Power’,
  131. (1990). Integrating the Individual and the Organization.
  132. (2004). Interfirm Relations as networks,pp.508-529
  133. (1984). Interorganization Relationship in Industrial System: A Network Approach Compared with the Transactional Cost Approach. Paper Presented at the Prince Bertil Symposium Stockholm School of Economics,
  134. (1999). Introduction to the special issue: Applications of complexity theory to organization science.
  135. (1994). Introduction to the theory of complexity.
  136. (1998). Johdatus laadulliseen tutkimukseen.
  137. L.(2007) A framework for facilitating adaptation to organizational transition.
  138. (1998). Labor flexibility in the UK commercial television sector.
  139. (2004). Leader visioning and adaptability: Bridging the gap between research and practice on developing the ability to manage change.
  140. (2006). Lifestyle meets market: Bohemian entrepreneurs in creative industries.
  141. (2005). Local clusters in a global economy,
  142. (2000). Location, competition, and economic development: Local clusters in a global economy.
  143. (2003). Longitudinal organizational research and the third scientific discipline.
  144. M.(2004) Clusters and knowledge: Local buzz, global pipelines and the process of knowledge creation.
  145. (2005). Managing project networks as dynamic organizational forms: Learning from the TV movie industry.
  146. (1999). Managing the Complex.
  147. (2007). Managing the cycle of change.
  148. (2006). Managing uncertainty in creative industries: Lessons from Jerry Springer the opera.
  149. (1994). Marketing, management, and competitive strategy in the cultural industries.
  150. (1975). Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications.
  151. (2001). Mastering strategic renewal: mobilizing renewal journeys in multi-unit firms Long Range Planning, Special Theme: Mastering Strategic Renewal: Lessons from
  152. (1998). Media policy,
  153. (1997). Mediamorphosis: Understanding new media. Thousand Oaks,
  154. (1994). Meso organizational behavior: Avoiding three fundamental biases.
  155. (1996). Methodological issues in cross-cultural marketing research: A state-of-the-art review.
  156. (2008). Modeling the creative/cultural industries.
  157. (2000). Multimedia industry networks and regional economic development policies: The case of the Netherlands.
  158. (1990). Neither market nor hierarchy: Network forms of organization.
  159. (2000). Network location and learning: The influence of network resources and firm capabilities on alliance formation.
  160. (2004). Networking beyond organizational boundaries: The case of project organizations.
  161. (1993). New Hollywood, pp12-26 in Collins J. and Radner H (eds) Film Theory Goes to the Movies. London :
  162. (2004). Not so cool Britannia: The role of the creative industries in economic development.
  163. (1990). Off-Hollywood: The Making & Marketing of Independent Films. By the Sundance Institute and the Independent Feature Project.
  164. (2002). On cooperating: firms, relations and networks.
  165. (2002). On uncertainty, ambiguity, and complexity in project management.
  166. (2004). One Hundred Year History of Taiwanese Cinema. Taipei: Association of Chinese Film Critics.
  167. (2001). One size does not fit all projects: Exploring classical contingency Domains.
  168. (1984). Order Out of Chaos: Man's New Dialogue with Nature.
  169. (1993). Organization as strategy: restructuring production in the film industry.
  170. (1989). Organizational Ecology. London:
  171. (2004). Organizational Emergence: The Origin and Transformation of Branson, Missouri’s Musical Theaters.
  172. (2002). Organizational models for collaboration in the new economy’. Human Resource Planning,
  173. (1992). Organizational theory in the post-modern era,
  174. (1979). Organizations and environments.
  175. (1999). Organizations Evolving: London:
  176. (1999). Organizations Evolving.
  177. (1967). Organizations in Action.
  178. (1998). Organizing and evaluating interfirm networks -A structurationist perspective on network processes and effectiveness.
  179. (1997). Organizing diversity: evolutionary theory, network analysis and post-socialism.
  180. (1998). Organizing Industrial Activities across Firm Boundaries.
  181. (1994). Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems and the Economic World.
  182. (2000). Out of the Box: The Programme Supply Market in the Digital Age. A Report for the Department for Media, Culture
  183. (1947). Principles of self-organizing dynamic systems.
  184. (1986). Production, Work, Territory: The Geographical Anatomy of Industrial Capitalism:
  185. (1998). Project management in the live entertainment industry: What is different?
  186. (2002). Project management.
  187. (2002). Project work in context: Regulatory change and the new geography of media. Environment and Planning
  188. (2006). Project-based firms: New organizational form or variations on a theme?
  189. (1999). Prolegomena on coevolution: A framework for research on strategy and new organizational forms. Organization Science:
  190. (1984). Qualitative data analysis: A Source Book of New Methods.
  191. (2002). Qualitative Methods in Social Research.
  192. (2001). Rational Analysis for a Problematic World Revisited: Problem Structuring Methods for Complexity, Uncertainty and Conflict.
  193. (1998). Regions and the World Economy: The Coming Shape of Global Production, Competition, and Political Order:
  194. (2000). Remapping the Horizon of the Asian-pacific Mediascapes. Taipei: Ya-Tai Publication.
  195. (1999). Resetting the clock: a feedback approach to the dynamic of organizational inertia, survival and change.
  196. (1996). Restructuring Networks in Post-Socialism: Legacies, Linkages, and Localities .Oxford:
  197. (2006). Review of the Television Production Sector. Research Publication Oliver,
  198. (1991). Role as resource in the Hollywood film industry.
  199. (1984). Schemata and the cognitive system,
  200. (1987). Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society.
  201. (1994). Self-organization in complex systems.
  202. (1977). Self-Organization in Nonequilibrium Systems.
  203. (2007). Servicing ‘the other Hollywood’: The vicissitudes of an international television production location.
  204. (1987). Short-term projects and emergent careers: Evidence from Hollywood.
  205. (1999). Small Firms and Network Economies.
  206. (2004). Spike Mike Reloaded: A Guided Tour Across a Decade of American Independent Cinema.
  207. (2007). Staying Ahead: The Economic Performance of the UK's Creative Industries. Work Foundation Report.
  208. (1992). Structural Hole.
  209. (2004). Supranational regulation: Television and the European Union.
  210. (2003). Survey Report of Movie going Pattern and Film Exhibition Industry
  211. (2006). Taiwan Cinema Year Book
  212. (1997). Taiwanese Cinema, Society and History. Taipei: Ya-Tai Publication.
  213. (1993). Team Roles at Work.
  214. (1999). Technological and Organisational Change in the European Audio-visual Industries: An Exploratory Analysis of the Consequences for Employment. Research Report. Strasbourg, European Audio Visual Observatory.
  215. (2000). The Age of Access: The New Culture of Hypercapitalism, Where all of Life is a Paid-for Experience.
  216. (1985). The American Film Industry (Rev.
  217. (1997). The Art of Continuous Change: Linking Complexity Theory and Time-paced Evolution in Relentlessly Shifting Organizations.
  218. (1985). The Changing Economics of Entertainment, pp 603-630 in Balio T.
  219. (1986). The city as studio; the world as back lot: The impact of vertical disintegration on the location of the motion picture industry .Environment and Planning D:
  220. (1998). The co-evolution of strategic alliances.
  221. (1997). The coevolution of network alliances: A longitudinal analysis of an international professional service network. Organization Science:
  222. (1999). The coevolution of new organizational forms in the fashion industry: A historical and comparative study of France, Italy, and the United States.
  223. (1999). The coevolution of new organizational forms.
  224. (1994). The Collapse of Chaos: Discovering Simplicity in a Complex World.
  225. (1990). The Competitive Advantage of Nations.
  226. (1999). The Complexity Advantage: How the Science of Complexity Can Help Your Business Achieve Peak Performance.
  227. (1997). The Complexity of Cooperation: Agent-based Models of Competition and Collaboration:
  228. (1996). The craft, fashion, and cultural products industries of Los Angeles: Competitive dynamics and policy dilemmas in a multi-sectoral image-producing complex.
  229. (2001). The Creative Economy: How People Make Money from Ideas.
  230. (1998). The Cultural and Economic Significance of Taiwan New Cinema.
  231. (1979). The Cultural Commodity.
  232. (1997). The cultural economy of cities.
  233. (2004). The cultural economy: A call for spatialized production of culture perspectives.
  234. (1997). The cultural industries production system: A case study of employment change in Britain,
  235. (2002). The Cultural Industries.
  236. (2007). The Cultural Industries. (2nd ed.) London ;
  237. (1996). The Culture Business: Management Strategies for the Arts-Related Business.
  238. (1980). The developments of buyer-seller relationships in industrial markets.
  239. (2007). The Dilemma of the Taiwanese Film Industry: 2002-2006. On-line seminar paper: Lin,
  240. (1998). The economics of Hollywood: Money and media,
  241. (1999). The Edge of Organization: Chaos and Complexity Theories of Formal Social Systems. Thousand Oaks, Calif.:
  242. (1976). The effect of uncertainty on the use of social influence in organizational decision making.
  243. (1989). The effects of flexible specialization on industrial politics and the labor market: The motion picture industry.
  244. (1993). The Embedded Firm: On the Socio-Economics of Industrial Networks.
  245. (1995). The emergence of flexible networks in the UK television industry.
  246. (2000). The Employment and Enterprise Characteristics of the Cultural Sector in Europe. Research report for North West Arts Board, UK. A Report for Banking on Culture. European Commission Report.
  247. (1994). The Empty Raincoat: Making Sense of the Future (
  248. (1997). The End of Certainty: Time, Chaos, and the New Laws of Nature,
  249. (2001). The European Audiovisual Industry- Sector chapter: An overview.
  250. (1996). The European Film Production Guide: Finance, Tax, and Legislation.
  251. (2007). The European Union,
  252. (1984). The Evolution of Cooperation:
  253. (1982). The Executive Mind and Double-Loop Learning.
  254. (2003). The Future of European Regulatory Audiovisual Policy. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament,
  255. (1996). The implications of the nonlinear paradigm for integrated environmental design and planning.
  256. (1999). The Independents: Britain's New Cultural Entrepreneurs.
  257. (2001). The insecure workforce/the realities of human resource management: Managing the employment relationship.
  258. (2002). The institutional embeddedness of project networks: The case of content production in German television.
  259. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields.
  260. (2000). The Media and Entertainment Industries:
  261. (1999). The Media in Britain: Current Debates and Developments:
  262. (1985). The motion picture patents company: A reevaluation,
  263. (1993). The myopia of learning.
  264. (2006). The myth of change management: A reflection on personal change and its lessons for leadership development.
  265. (1998). The new adhocracy: Strategy, risk and the small creative Firm (Coventry: Centre for Cultural Policy Studies Working Chapter
  266. (1997). The New Language of Qualitative Method.
  267. (2006). The New Media Handbook.
  268. (1993). The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution.
  269. (2004). The other Hollywood: The organizational and geographic bases of television-program production.
  270. (2002). The project ecology of advertising: Tasks, talents and teams.
  271. (1994). The Quark and the Jaguar.
  272. (1996). The rise and fall of communication empires.
  273. (2002). The Rise of the Creative Class - and How it’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and EverydayLlife.
  274. (1995). The Science of Complexity: An alternative perspective for strategic change processes.
  275. (1984). The Second Industrial Divide.
  276. (1993). The Social Production of Art. (2 nd ed.)
  277. (2003). The social side of creativity: A static and dynamic social network perspective.
  278. (1985). The Social Space and the Genesis of Groups.
  279. (1996). The sources and consequences of embeddedness for the economic performance of organizations: The network effect.
  280. (1971). The stranger,
  281. (1973). The strengths of weak ties.
  282. (1989). The transition to flexible specialisation in the U.S. film industry: External economies, the division of labour, and the crossing of industrial divide. Cambridge Journal of Economics.
  283. (1997). The Undeclared War: The Struggle for Control of the World's Film industry.
  284. (2000). The view from out west: Embeddedness, inter-personal relations and the development of an indigenous film industry in Vancouver.
  285. (1996). The Web of Life.
  286. (1996). Thirty years of project management what have we learned?’ Chapter Presented at:
  287. (1998). To the rear of the back end: The economics of independent cinema,
  288. (1996). Training in project management: A powerful tool for improving individual and team performance.
  289. (2006). UK film companies: Project-based organizations lacking entrepreneurship and innovativeness?
  290. (2004). Uncertainty, flexibility, and sustained competitive advantage.
  291. (1990). Understanding Business Markets.
  292. (2002). Understanding Media Economics.
  293. (1989). Understanding organizational transformation using a dissipative structure model.
  294. (2002). Value creation in fine arts: A system dynamics model of inverse demand and information cascades.
  295. (2002). What can managers do for creativity? Brokering creativity in the creative industries.
  296. (2000). What can we learn from a theory of complexity?
  297. (1993). Where are the theories for the ‘New’ organization forms? An editorial essay’.
  298. (1999). Where do inter-organizational networks come from?
  299. (2002). Where the art is: Defining and managing creativity in new media SMEs.
  300. (2003). Winning and losing in flexible labour markets: the formation and operation of networks of interdependence in the UK Film industry.
  301. (2001). Working in film: Employment in a project based industry.
  302. (2000). WTO negotiations and the audiovisual sector. Preserving Europe’s cultural diversity. European Commission
  303. (2001). You’re only as good as your last job: The labour process and labour market in the British film industry.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.