Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Telecommunications reform programme of Thailand: institutionalism and the reform process

By Pitaya Uthaisang


The thesis presents an empirical study of the telecommunications reform experience of Thailand between the mid 1980s and 2000s in an attempt to explain the effect of national institutional arrangements upon the reform process. This time period permits an exploration of the development of the reform as well as its major impediments in relation to three different political settings. The progress of reform on the three basic reform issues (privatisation, liberalisation, and regulation) is thoroughly examined to understand the consequences produced by different industry environments. An historical institutionalist study of the Thai experience identifies the political tensions among the reform's interested parties as well as the unwieldy political settings that were the dominant features that heavily influenced the reform story. The thesis places a special emphasis on the latest political regime (the hegemonic era) since it provided a different industry outlook compared to the previous two regimes (the bureaucratic and pluralistic eras), allowing substantial progress towards reform to be made. The telecommunications reform in Thailand is not complete. Thus, it may be too early to confirm the advantage of the strong politics on the reform in the long run, especially considering the possibilities of rent-seeking or the overuse of political power of the hegemonic govenunent. In any case, the Thai reform experience confirms that an institutionalist framework is helpful, and that institutional arrangements really matter in the policy-formation, policy-implementation and policy-outcome of a particular country

Topics: HE
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1998). 1). Fire-sale FDI. Paper presented at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) conference on Capital Inflows to Emerging Markets. Retrieved September 22,2003, from htip: //www.
  2. 1). The political economy of telecommunications reform in developing countries. A paper presented to the World Bank seminar on 316 "Implementing reforms in the telecommunication sector - lessons from recent experiences" in
  3. (2004). 1). The Spirit of Thaksin's Capitalism. The Nation.
  4. (1999). 10). IMF gets a drubbing as National Plan discussed. The Bangkok Post,
  5. 16,2004, from http: //news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/business/231058I. stm Thailand Development Research Institution (TDRI).
  6. (2002). 18). Thai telecom liberalisation: Delayed but still imminent. SG Asian Pacific Equity Research.
  7. (2003). 20). NTC selection chief"Transparency is my priority". The Nation,
  8. (2001). 20). Regulatory reform in telecommunications sector. Presentation made at the seminar of Thailand's regulatory reform,
  9. (1997). 21). The Winners and losers from privatisation. The Bangkok Post,
  10. (2003). 22). The Thaksin effect. TIME Magazine. Retrieved February 12,2004, from htlp: //www.
  11. (1999). 24). Issues in regulatory formation. Document presented to the State Enterprise Policy Commission (SEPC).
  12. (1999). 24). Privatization and regulation: The UK experience. Document presented to the State Enterprise Policy Commission (SEPC).
  13. (1999). 24). Regulatory guidelines and principles. Document presented to the State Enterprise Policy Commission (SEPC).
  14. (2003). 28). War on terrorism "eroding fteedoms". The Nation. Retrieved January 11,2004, from htlp: //www.
  15. (2004). 29). Wan Jed Orahan Eua Toon Yak Ped Seree Tac Rai Mai Mod Sid Jang Kerd [If seven NTC members are on the incumbent side, no chance for the newcomers].
  16. (1988). 323 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). doi
  17. (2002). 8). Court rules NTC process was invalid. The Nation,
  18. (2003). 8). Thaksinomics. A keynote speech made at Manila, the Philippines, for the Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Philippine-Thai Business Council. Retrieved July 20,2004, from htlp: //www.
  19. (1983). A theory of competition among pressure groups for political Influence. doi
  20. (2002). An assessment of telecommunications reform in developing countries. The World Bank Working Paper No. doi
  21. (1999). An empirical analysis of competition, Privatization, and regulation in telecommunications markets in Africa and Latin America. Policy Research Working Paper 2136. doi
  22. (1998). Analysis and evaluation of thefacts behind Thailand's economic crisis.
  23. (1996). Argentina: The sequencing of privatization and regulation. In doi
  24. (2002). Asking questions: Techniques for structured interviews. doi
  25. (2004). Berlusconi's shadow: Crime, justice and the pursuit ofpower.
  26. (2004). Bod Kuann Kol Kai Truad Sorb Sue Park Pra Cha Chon [The role of the people in the media investigation]. In
  27. (2003). BT told to cut internet charges.
  28. (1975). Bureaucrats and politicians. doi
  29. (1982). Business users and the telecommunications network. doi
  30. (2003). Can a level playing field be created? doi
  31. (1962). Capitalism and Freedom.
  32. (2003). Change and continuity in the Thai party system. doi
  33. (1997). Comment on the meaning and importance of "Independence" in telecom refonn.
  34. Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand doi
  35. (2004). Defining interests: Disambiguation and the need for new distinctions? doi
  36. (2002). Delegation to independent regulatory agencies: Pressures, functions and contextual mediation. doi
  37. (2000). Developing effective research proposals, doi
  38. (2001). Developing policy in the Twenty-Century beyond the Post- Washington consensus. doi
  39. (2002). Development of telecommunications infrastructure and policy in Thailand. PhD Dissertation.
  40. (1993). Economic deregulation: Days of reckoning for microeconomists.
  41. (1995). Economic policy in developing countries: The reform agenda.
  42. (1978). Economy and society: An outline of interpretive sociology. London: doi
  43. (2000). Elite interviewing: A practical guide. Institutefor Germany studies discussion papers series no.
  44. (1998). for State Enterprise Sector Reform.
  45. (2005). Hampton review on regulatory inspections and enforcement.
  46. (1992). Historical institutionalism in comparative politics. In doi
  47. (2002). Historical institutionalism in contemporary political science.
  48. (2004). ICT- statistics on the average wal . ting list. Retrieved January 28,2004. Available from ITU Web site, http: //www. itu. int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/
  49. (1994). Implementing reforms in the telecommunications sector: Lessons from experience. doi
  50. (1999). Institutional theory in political science: The "New Institutionalism ".
  51. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. Cambridge: doi
  52. (2002). Interview methods in political science. doi
  53. (1998). Introduction to social research: quantitative and qualitative approaches. doi
  54. (2001). Introduction: The refonn of utilities regulation in the EU.
  55. (2003). Kod Mai Kub Kam Perd Sae Ree Kid Cha Kam To Ra Kom Ma Na Kom Pa Ra Kid Tee Young Mai Sed Sin [Laws and telecommunications liberalization: An unfinished business]. In the special edition of publication,
  56. (2004). Kor Tor Chor Jub Ta Pol Eak Choo Chart Pra Tam Sed Tha Pom Rong Rien Chai Lae Kar [X-ray 7 NTC members - General Choochart will be the chainnan, Sedthaporn the vice chairman, and Rienchai the secretariat]
  57. (2003). Kor Tor Chor Rao Char Mai Dai Eg Leaw [NTC - No more delay]. In the special edition of publication,
  58. (2004). Kran Sak Sang Ong Kom Isala Tann Rat ta tam ma noon Krueng Chi Wat Kruam Loom Leaw Kong Kam Pa Ti Roob Karn Muang [The interference of independent organisation: the failure indicator of the political reform].
  59. (2003). Krong Sang Ta Lard Lae Kam Kum Kub Doo Lae Nang Sue Pim Nai Pra Ted Thai [The market structure and the regulation of the press industry in Thailand]. Bangkok, Thailand: The Thailand Research Fund (TRF).
  60. (2004). Kum Nerd Kor Tor Chor Am Nard Dul Pi Nit Pol Kra Tob Tor Tu Ra Kid Lae Pra Cha Chon [The rise ofNTC: Power discretion and impacts on businesses and consumers].
  61. (2001). Liberalizing basic telecommunications: The Asian experience. The World Bank Working Paper 2718. doi
  62. (1994). Managing the process of sector reform. In
  63. (2001). Measuring services trade liberlalization and its impact on economic growth: An illustration. The World Bank Working Paper 2655. doi
  64. (1997). Ministry of Transport and Conununications. The Royal Thai Govemment.
  65. (1982). MITI and the Japanese miracle: The growth of industrial policy, doi
  66. (2003). Nao Kid Keaw Kub Kran Ka Yay Bor Ri Kam To Ra kom Ma Na Kom Puen Tam Soo Chon Na Bod Thai [Expansion of basic telecommunications in Thai rural areas]. In the special edition of publication,
  67. (1989). Organizing regulatory space. Capitalism, culture, and economic regulation
  68. (1989). Ownership and performance in competitive environments: A comparison of the performance of private, mixed, and state-owned enterprise. doi
  69. (2001). Performance and economic expectations of newly privatized telecommunications companies: A case study of the Telephone Organization of Thailand. DSc Dissertation.
  70. (1995). Political Philosophy in a Nutshell. Retrieved November 13,2005, from htlp: //users. erols. com/vberry/politics/theory. htm
  71. (2002). Political Science: The state of the discipline doi
  72. (2000). Politics and the press in Thailand: media machinations, doi
  73. (1999). Power and regulation in Britain. doi
  74. (2001). Privatisation in less developed countries (pp. doi
  75. (1993). Privatization in Europe: A comparison of approaches. Oxford Review ofEconomic Policy, 9(l), 95 -I 11. In doi
  76. (1999). Privatization, restructuring, and regulation of network utilities. doi
  77. (1988). Privatization: An economic analysis. doi
  78. (1995). Qualitative analysis. In
  79. (1996). Regulating Europe,
  80. (1994). Regulation and telecommunications refon-n: Exploring the altematives. In
  81. (2000). Regulation, market structure and performance in telecommunications. doi
  82. (1994). Regulatory reform: Economic analysis and British experience.
  83. (1992). Reinventing government: How the entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector. doi
  84. (1999). Research Institution (TDRI).
  85. (1998). Retrieved December 3,2002, from htlp: Hpgpers.
  86. (1993). Retrieved February 11,2005, from htlp: //www. natiomnultimedia. com/search/-page. arcview. php? clid=l I &id=944 73&usrsess
  87. (2000). Retrieved February 22,2004, from htlp: //www.
  88. (2001). Ringing in the 20th century: The effects of state monopolies, private ownership, and operating licenses on telecommunications doi
  89. (2005). Sale of the century: 3G mobile phone licensing in Europe. In doi
  90. (2004). Silvio Berlusconi: Television, power andpatrimony. doi
  91. (2000). Sociology in our time (2 nd edition).
  92. (2004). Statement announced on World Press Freedom day (May 3d5 2004). Retrieved August 30,2004, from http: //www. tj a. or. th/modules. php? name=News&file=article&sid=l 08 Thai Rak Thai Web Site.
  93. (2005). Statutory duties and regulatory principles. Available from Ofcom Web site, htip: //www.
  94. (1995). Talk is cheap: The promise of regulatory reform in North American telecommunications. Washington, DC: The Brooking Institution. doi
  95. (1994). Telecommunications reform in developing countries: Importance and strategy in the context of structural change. In
  96. (1999). Telecommunications reforms in developing countries. doi
  97. (1994). Telecommunications restructuring in Latin American: An overview. In
  98. (1996). Thailand: the modernization of a bureaucratic polity. Honolulu: East-West doi
  99. (2005). Thailand's prime minister list. Available from the Royal Thai Govemment Web site, http:
  100. (2004). Thailand's social and economic information. Retrieved June 16,2004, from htlp: //www.
  101. (2003). Thaksin Kub Pra Cha Tip pa Tai Nai Rabob Pak Kam Muang [Thaksin and democracy under political party system].
  102. (2004). THAKSIN. - The business ofpolitics in Yhailand.
  103. (2003). Thaksinomics: A new Asian paradigm? Strategic insight. Monterey: the Center for Contemporary Conflict (CCC).
  104. (1988). The Adam Smith lecture: The effects of government on economic efficiency.
  105. (2002). The British regulatory state: High modernism and hyperinnovation.
  106. (1980). The economics of property rights: A review of the evidence. Research in law and economics, 2,1 - 47. In
  107. (2001). The Encyclopedia of*Democratic Thought. doi
  108. (1990). The history of Thai communication. The Royal Thai Govenunent.
  109. (1997). The impact ofprivatisation: Ownership and corporate performance in the UK. doi
  110. (1989). The irony of regulatory reform. - The deregulation of American telecommunications. doi
  111. (2000). The national politics of European regulation: Institutional reform in telecommunications. doi
  112. (1994). The political conditions for economic reform. In
  113. (2000). The political economy of telecommunications reforms in Thailand.
  114. (2003). The political economy of telecommunications reforms. Retrieved February 12,2004, from http: //siteresources. worldbank. org/INTABCDEWASHINGTON20OO/Resourc es/xu. pdf
  115. (1994). The political economy ofpolicy reform.
  116. (1995). The political economy ofprivatization and deregulation
  117. (1995). The political economy ofprivatization and deregulation.
  118. (1999). The politics of telecommunications: National institutions convergence, and change in Britain and France. doi
  119. (1996). The regulation ga I me. -Uhow British and West German companies bargain with government.
  120. (1989). The regulation of privatized monopolies in the United Kingdom. doi
  121. (2002). The regulatory state: Britain and Germany compared. Anglo-Gerrnan Foundation for the Study of Industrial Society. Retrieved May 22,2004, from htip: //www.
  122. (2005). The Thaksinization of Thailand. doi
  123. (1998). The theoretical core of the new institutionalism. doi
  124. (1947). The theory ofsocial and economic organization (Translated by
  125. (2003). TRT set for 20 years in power, PM tells faithful.
  126. (2005). TT&Tfinancial statements.
  127. (2003). Tua Kong Kloorn Toon Fan Rai Lar Sood Kong Pra Cha Ti Pat [The pulling out of patrons - The latest nightmare of the Democrat Party].
  128. (1996). Understanding economic policy reform. doi
  129. (1999). Understanding regulation: theory, strategy, and practice. doi
  130. (1997). Utility regulators - the independence debate. Public Policy Journal, 127. The World Bank. Retrieved December 12,2002, from htlp:
  131. (1997). Valuation and the effect of regulation on new services in telecommunications. doi
  132. (2004). Variety of capitalism in an intemationalised world: Domestic institutional change in European telecommunications. doi
  133. (1994). WeĆ½fare consequences ofsellingpublic enterprises: An empirical analysis. doi
  134. (2005). What is regulatory innovation? In doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.