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The Lateral Trigger Probability function for the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

By P. Abreu, M. Aglietta, E.J. Ahn, I.F.M. Albuquerque, D. Allard, I. Allekotte, J. Allen, P. Allison, J. Alvarez Castillo, J. Alvarez-Muñiz, M. Ambrosio, A. Aminaei, L. Anchordoqui, S. Andringa, T. Antičić, A. Anzalone, C. Aramo, E. Arganda, F. Arqueros, H. Asorey, P. Assis, J. Aublin, M. Ave, M. Avenier, G. Avila, T. Bäcker, M. Balzer, K.B. Barber, A.F. Barbosa, R. Bardenet, S.L.C. Barroso, B. Baughman, J. Bäuml, J.J. Beatty, B.R. Becker, K.H. Becker, A. Bellétoile, J.A. Bellido, S. Benzvi, C. Berat, X. Bertou, P.L. Biermann, P. Billoir, F. Blanco, M. Blanco, C. Bleve, H. Blümer, M. Boháčová, D. Boncioli, C. Bonifazi, R. Bonino, N. Borodai, J. Brack, P. Brogueira, W.C. Brown, R. Bruijn, P. Buchholz, A. Bueno, R.E. Burton, K.S. Caballero-Mora, L. Caramete, R. Caruso, A. Castellina, O. Catalano, G. Cataldi, L. Cazon, R. Cester, J. Chauvin, S.H. Cheng, A. Chiavassa, J.A. Chinellato, A. Chou, J. Chudoba, R.W. Clay, M.R. Coluccia, R. Conceição, F. Contreras, H. Cook, M.J. Cooper, J. Coppens, A. Cordier, U. Cotti, S. Coutu, C.E. Covault, A. Creusot, A. Criss, J. Cronin, A. Curutiu, S. Dagoret-Campagne, R. Dallier, S. Dasso, K. Daumiller, B.R. Dawson, R.M. De Almeida, M. De Domenico, C. De Donato, S.J. De Jong, G. De La Vega, W.J.M. De Mello Junior, J.R.T. De Mello Neto, I. De Mitri, V. De Souza, K.D. De Vries, G. Decerprit, L. Del Peral, O. Deligny, H. Dembinski, N. Dhital, C. Di Giulio, J.C. Diaz, M.L. Diaz Castro, P.N. Diep, C. Dobrigkeit, W. Docters, J.C. D&rsquoolivo, P.N. Dong, A. Dorofeev, J.C. Dos Anjos, M.T. Dova, D. D'Urso, I. Dutan, J. Ebr, R. Engel, M. Erdmann, C.O. Escobar, A. Etchegoyen, P. Facal San Luis, I. Fajardo Tapia, H. Falcke, G. Farrar, A.C. Fauth, N. Fazzini, A.P. Ferguson, A. Ferrero, B. Fick, A. Filevich, A. Filipčič, S. Fliescher, C.E. Fracchiolla, E.D. Fraenkel, U. Fröhlich, B. Fuchs, R. Gaior, R.F. Gamarra, S. Gambetta, B. Garcia, D. Garc?'A Gámez, D. Garcia-Pinto, A. Gascon, H. Gemmeke, K. Gesterling, P.L. Ghia, U. Giaccari, M. Giller, H. Glass, M.S. Gold, G. Golup, F. Gomez Albarracin, M. Gómez Berisso, P. Gonçalves, D. Gonzalez, J.G. Gonzalez, B. Gookin, D. Góra, A. Gorgi, P. Gouffon, S.R. Gozzini, E. Grashorn, S. Grebe, N. Griffith, M. Grigat, A.F. Grillo, Y. Guardincerri, F. Guarino, G.P. Guedes, A. Guzman, J.D. Hague, P. Hansen, D. Harari, S. Harmsma, J.L. Harton, A. Haungs, T. Hebbeker, D. Heck, A.E. Herve, C. Hojvat, N. Hollon, V.C. Holmes, P. Homola, J.R. Hörandel, A. Horneffer, M. Hrabovsk?, T. Huege, A. Insolia, F. Ionita, A. Italiano, C. Jarne, S. Jiraskova, K. Kadija, K.H. Kampert, P. Karhan, P. Kasper, Balázs Kégl, B. Keilhauer, A. Keivani, J.L. Kelley, E. Kemp, R.M. Kieckhafer, H.O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, J. Knapp, D.H. Koang, K. Kotera, N. Krohm, O. Krömer, D. Kruppke-Hansen, F. Kuehn, D. Kuempel, J.K. Kulbartz, N. Kunka, G. La Rosa, C. Lachaud, Pascal Lautridou, M.S.A.B. Leão, D. Lebrun, P. Lebrun, M.A. Leigui De Oliveira, A. Lemiere, A. Letessier-Selvon, I. Lhenry-Yvon, K. Link, R. López, A. Lopez Agüera, K. Louedec, J. Lozano Bahilo, A. Lucero, M. Ludwig, H. Lyberis, M.C. Maccarone, C. Macolino, S. Maldera, D. Mandat, P. Mantsch, A.G. Mariazzi, J. Marin, V. Marin, I.C. Maris, H.R. Marquez Falcon, G. Marsella, D. Martello, L. Martin, H. Martinez, O. Mart?'Nez Bravo, H.J. Mathes, J. Matthews, J.A.J. Matthews, G. Matthiae, D. Maurizio, P.O. Mazur, G. Medina-Tanco, M. Melissas, D. Melo, E. Menichetti, A. Menshikov, P. Mertsch, C. Meurer, S. Mićanović, M.I. Micheletti, W. Miller, L. Miramonti, S. Mollerach, M. Monasor, D. Monnier Ragaigne, F. Montanet, B. Morales, C. Morello, E. Moreno, J.C. Moreno, C. Morris, M. Mostafá, C.A. Moura, S. Mueller, M.A. Muller, G. Müller, M. Münchmeyer, R. Mussa, G. Navarra, J.L. Navarro, S. Navas, P. Necesal, L. Nellen, A. Nelles, P.T. Nhung, L. Niemietz, N. Nierstenhoefer, D. Nitz, D. Nosek, L. Nožka, M. Nyklicek, J. Oehlschläger, A. Olinto, P. Oliva, V.M. Olmos-Gilbaja, M. Ortiz, N. Pacheco, D. Pakk Selmi-Dei, M. Palatka, J. Pallotta, N. Palmieri, G. Parente, E. Parizot, A. Parra, R.D. Parsons, S. Pastor, T. Paul, M. Pech, J. Pe¸kala, R. Pelayo, I.M. Pepe, L. Perrone, R. Pesce, E. Petermann, S. Petrera, P. Petrinca, A. Petrolini, Y. Petrov, J. Petrovic, C. Pfendner, N. Phan, R. Piegaia, T. Pierog, P. Pieroni, M. Pimenta, V. Pirronello, M. Platino, V.H. Ponce, M. Pontz, P. Privitera, M. Prouza, E.J. Quel, S. Querchfeld, J. Rautenberg, O. Ravel, D. Ravignani, Benoît Revenu, J. Ridky, S. Riggi, M. Risse, P. Ristori, H. Rivera, V. Rizi, J. Roberts, C. Robledo, W. Rodrigues De Carvalho, G. Rodriguez, J. Rodriguez Martino, J. Rodriguez Rojo, I. Rodriguez-Cabo, M.D. Rodriguez-Frias, G. Ros, J. Rosado, T. Rossler, M. Roth, B. Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, E. Roulet, A.C. Rovero, C. Rühle, F. Salamida, H. Salazar, G. Salina, F. Sánchez, M. Santander, C.E. Santo, E. Santos, E.M. Santos, F. Sarazin, B. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, R. Sato, N. Scharf, V. Scherini, H. Schieler, P. Schiffer, A. Schmidt, F. Schmidt, T. Schmidt, O. Scholten, H. Schoorlemmer, J. Schovancova, P. Schovánek, F. Schröder, S. Schulte, D. Schuster, S.J. Sciutto, M. Scuderi, A. Segreto, M. Settimo, A. Shadkam, R.C. Shellard, I. Sidelnik, G. Sigl, H.H. Silva Lopez, A. Śmiałkowski, R. Smida, G.R. Snow, P. Sommers, J. Sorokin, H. Spinka, R. Squartini, J. Stapleton, J. Stasielak, M. Stephan, E. Strazzeri, A. Stutz, F. Suarez, T. Suomijärvi, A.D. Supanitsky, T.T Šuša, M.S. Sutherland, J. Swain, Z. Szadkowski, M. Szuba, A. Tamashiro, A. Tapia, M. Tartare, O. Taşcău, C.G. Tavera Ruiz, R. Tcaciuc, D. Tegolo, N.T. Thao, D. Thomas, J. Tiffenberg, C. Timmermans, D.K. Tiwari, W. Tkaczyk, C.J. Todero Peixoto, B. Tomé, A. Tonachini, P. Travnicek, D.B. Tridapalli, G. Tristram, E. Trovato, M. Tueros, R. Ulrich, M. Unger, Martin Urban, J.F. Valdés Galicia, I. Valiño, L. Valore, A.M. Van Den Berg, E. Varela, B. Vargas Cárdenas, J.R. Vázquez, R.A. Vázquez, D. Veberi?, V. Verzi, J. Vicha, M. Videla, L. Villaseñor, H. Wahlberg, P. Wahrlich, O. Wainberg, D. Warner, A.A. Watson, M. Weber, K. Weidenhaupt, A. Weindl, S. Westerhoff, B.J. Whelan, G. Wieczorek, L. Wiencke, B. Wilczyńska, H. Wilczyński, M. Will, C. Williams, T. Winchen, L. Winders, M.G. Winnick, M. Wommer, B. Wundheiler, T. Yamamoto, T. Yapici, P. Younk, G. Yuan, A. Yushkov, B. Zamorano, E. Zas, D. Zavrtanik, M. Zavrtanik, I. Zaw, A. Zepeda and M. Ziolkowski

Abstract

International audienceIn this paper we introduce the concept of Lateral Trigger Probability (LTP) function, i.e., the probability for an extensive air shower (EAS) to trigger an individual detector of a ground based array as a function of distance to the shower axis, taking into account energy, mass and direction of the primary cosmic ray. We apply this concept to the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consisting of a 1.5 km spaced grid of about 1600 water Cherenkov stations. Using Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-high energy showers the LTP functions are derived for energies in the range between 1017 and 1019 eV and zenith angles up to 65°. A parametrization combining a step function with an exponential is found to reproduce them very well in the considered range of energies and zenith angles. The LTP functions can also be obtained from data using events simultaneously observed by the fluorescence and the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory (hybrid events). We validate the Monte-Carlo results showing how LTP functions from data are in good agreement with simulations

Topics: Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, Extensive Air Showers, Trigger performance, Surface detector, Hybrid detector, [ PHYS.ASTR.HE ] Physics [physics]/Astrophysics [astro-ph]/High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena [astro-ph.HE], [ SDU.ASTR.HE ] Sciences of the Universe [physics]/Astrophysics [astro-ph]/High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena [astro-ph.HE], [ PHYS.ASTR.IM ] Physics [physics]/Astrophysics [astro-ph]/Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysic [astro-ph.IM], [ SDU.ASTR.IM ] Sciences of the Universe [physics]/Astrophysics [astro-ph]/Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysic [astro-ph.IM]
Publisher: Elsevier
Year: 2011
DOI identifier: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2011.08.001
OAI identifier: oai:HAL:in2p3-00614822v1
Provided by: Hal-Diderot
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