Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

ATP and mechanisms of central CO2 chemosensitivity

By Robert T. R. Huckstepp


ATP release from the surface of the ventro-lateral medulla (VLM) is integral to the hypercapnic response in vivo and can be seen in vitro. By employing horizontal slices of the ventral medulla containing the ventral chemosensitive nuclei, I have developed a model that consistently evokes hypercapnia-induced ATP release in vitro. Using this preparation I have studied CO2-triggered ATP release by means of microelectrode biosensors. I conclude that it is the change in PCO2 itself, and not associated pH changes that accompany it, that is directly responsible for eliciting ATP release from the surface of the VLM. In addition ATP release from this region may have a role in the response to hypocapnia as well as hypercapnia. Using pharmacological agents I have demonstrated that gating of connexin hemichannels mediates ATP release. The dorso-ventral distribution of Cx26 ascertained via quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence makes this hemichannel the most likely candidate. Dye loading the cells responsible for ATP release with carboxyfluorescein, which co-localised with Cx26, revealed these cells reside in the pia mater and subpial astrocytes. Application of gap-junction antagonists, with selectivity towards connexin 26, greatly reduced ATP release in response to elevated CO2 in vitro and in vivo and reduced the tone of ATP at the VLM surface. Moreover, by loading Cx26 expressing HeLa cells with ATP, I was able to recapitulate the entire in vivo response. Therefore I propose that ATP is released from sub-pial astrocytes and leptomeningeal cells through connexin 26 hemichannels in response to alterations in PCO2. Here Cx26 performs a dual role, as both the chemosensory transducer and the conduit for ATP release

Topics: QP
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2008). A 'group pacemaker' mechanism for respiratory rhythm generation.
  2. (2008). A human mutation in Phox2b causes lack of CO2 chemosensitivity, fatal central apnea, and specific loss of parafacial neurons.
  3. (1997). A proton-gated cation channel involved in acid sensing.
  4. (2003). A reporter allele for investigating connexin 26 gene expression in the mouse brain.
  5. (2006). A strategy for determining arterial blood gases on the summit of Mt.
  6. (2002). Acetazolamide and respiratory chemosensitivity to CO2 in the neonatal rat transverse medullary slice.
  7. (2007). Activation of 5-Hydroxytryptamine Type 3 Receptor-Expressing CFiber Vagal Afferents Inhibits Retrotrapezoid Nucleus Chemoreceptors in Rats.
  8. (2005). Adenosine and ATP Link PCO2 to Cortical Excitability via pH.
  9. (2007). Afferent neurotransmission mediated by hemichannels in mamalian taste cells.
  10. (2003). Ageing does not influence the sleep-related decrease in the hypercapnic ventillatory response.
  11. (2000). Agonists and antagonistsacting at P2X receptors: selectivity profiles and functional implications.
  12. (2001). Altered gene expression in Schwann cells of connexin32 knockout animals.
  13. (2005). An astrocyte toxin influences the pattern of breathing and the ventillatory response to hypercapnia in neonatal rats.
  14. (2006). An evaluation of antibody detection of the P2X1 receptor subunit in the CNS of wild type and P2X1-knockout mice.
  15. (1996). An extracellular signalling component in propagation of astrocytic calcium waves.
  16. (2003). Anatomic relationships of the human nucleus of the solitary tract in the medulla oblongata:a Dil labeling study. Autonmic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical,
  17. (2002). Anatomical arrangement of hypercapnia-activated cells in the superficial ventral medulla of rats.
  18. (2001). Antagonism of adenosine A1 receptors in the NTS does not affect the chemoreflex in awake rats.
  19. (1992). Antidiuretic effects of purinoceptor agonists injected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of water-loaded, ethanol-anesthetized rats.
  20. (1994). Antiduretic effect of ATP induced by microinjection into the hypothalmic supraoptic nucleus in waterloaded and ethanol-anaesthetized rats.
  21. (2008). Are ATP and glutamate released from slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptor afferents in the NTS.
  22. (1989). Are there serotonergic projections from the raphe and retrotrapezoid nuclei to the ventral respiratory group in the rat?
  23. (2005). Are tuberomammillary histaminergic neurons involved in CO2-mediated arousal.
  24. (2005). Astrocytic purinergic signaling coordinates synaptic networks.
  25. (2000). ATP as a mediator of mamalian central CO2 chemoreception.
  26. (2008). ATP in central respiratory control: a three-part signaling system.
  27. (2003). ATP is a key mediator of central and peripheral chemosensory transduction.
  28. (2005). ATP is a mediator of chemosensory transduction in the central nervous system.
  29. (1992). ATP receptor-mediated synaptic currents in the central nervous system.
  30. (2005). ATP release via gap junction hemichannels from pigment epithelium regulates neural retinal progenitor proliferation.
  31. (2008). ATP sensitivity of pre-Bötzinger complex neurons in neonatal rat in vitro: mechanisms underlying a P2 receptor-mediated increase in inspiratory frequency.
  32. (2000). ATP-mediated glia signaling.
  33. (2005). Autonomic and respiratory responses to microinjection of ATP into the intermediate or caudal nucleus tractus solitarius in the working heart-brainstem preparation of the rat.
  34. (2004). Background sodium current stabilizes bursting in respiratory pacemaker neurons.
  35. (2001). Bicarbonate-regulated soluble adenylyl cyclase.
  36. (1983). biochemical characterization of the amiloride-sensitive Na +/H + antiport in chinese hamster lung fibroblasts.
  37. (2004). Biochemical requirements for inhibition of connexin26-containing channels by natural and synthetic taurine analogs.
  38. (1998). Biochemistry,
  39. (1999). Birth-related expression of c-fos, c-jun and substance P mRNAs in the rat brainstem and pia mater: possible relationship to changes in central chemosensitivity.
  40. (2003). Blockade of brain stem gap junctions increases phrenic burst frequency and reduces phrenic burst synchronisation in adult rat.
  41. (2002). Brain stem lesions in the sudden infant death syndrome: variability in the hypoplasia of the arcuate nucleus.
  42. (2000). Brainstem and hypothalamic areas involved in respiratory chemoreflexes: a Fos study in adult rats.
  43. (2003). Breathing: Rhythmicity, plasticity, chemosensitivity.
  44. (1990). Candidate cell populations for respiratory chemosensitive fields in the human infant medulla.
  45. (1997). Carbon dioxide regulates the tonic activity of locus coeruleus neurons by by modulating a proton- and polyamine-sensitive inward rectifier potassium current.
  46. (2004). Cellular mechanisms involved in CO2 and acid signalling in chemosensitive neurons.
  47. (2006). Central chemoreceptors and sympathetic vasomotor outflow.
  48. (2001). Central chemosensitivity and breathing asleep in unilateral medullary lesion patients: comparison to animal data.
  49. (1982). Central chemosensitivity and the reaction theory.
  50. (2001). Central chemosensitivity, sleep and wakefullness.
  51. (1999). Central CO2 chemoreception: a mechanism involving P2 purinoreceptors localized in the ventrolateral medulla of the anaesthetized rat.
  52. (1997). Central nervous system control of cardiovascular function: neural mechanisms and novel modulators.
  53. (2007). Central Nervous System Distribution of the Transcription Factor Phox2b in the Adult Rat.
  54. (2000). Changes in chemoreflex characteristics following acute carbonic anhydrase inhibition in humans at rest.
  55. (1999). Characterisation of P2 receptors modulating neural activity in rat rostral ventrolateral medulla.
  56. (2005). Characterization of efferent projections of chemosensitive neurons in the caudal parapyramidal area of the rat brain.
  57. (2004). Chemical gating of gap junction channels role of calcium, pH and calmodulin.
  58. chemoreception in the cat pre-Bötzinger complex in vivo.
  59. (1996). Chemosensitive medullary neurons in the brainstem-spinal cord preparation of the neonatal rat.
  60. (2002). Chemosensitive serotonergic neurons are closely associated with large medullary arteries.
  61. (2006). Chemosensory event-related potentials during sleep - a pilot study.
  62. (1996). Cloning of P2X5 and P2X6 receptors and the distribution and properties of an extended family of ATPgated ion channels.
  63. (2002). CO2 and pH independently modulate L-type Ca 2+ current in rabbit carotid body glomus cells.
  64. (2002). CO2 dialysis in nucleus tractus solitarius region of rat increases ventilation in sleep and wakefulness.
  65. (2002). CO2 dialysis in one chemoreceptor site, the RTN: stimulus intensity and sensitivity in the awake rat Respiration Physiology &
  66. (1999). CO2 microdialysis in retrotrapezoid nucleus of the rat increases breathing in wakefulness but not in sleep
  67. (2002). CO2-induced c-Fos expression in hypothalamic vasopressin containing neurons.
  68. (1999). CO2-induced c-fos expression in medullary neurons during early development.
  69. (2001). CO2/HCO3 --responsive soluable adenylyl cyclase as a putative metabolic sensor. . Trends in endocrinology and metabolism,
  70. (2000). Comparative study on the distribution patterns of P2X1-P2X6 receptor immunoreactivity in the brain stem of the rat and the common marmoset (callithrix jacchus): association with catecholamine cell groups.
  71. (2008). Complexity measures of the central respiratory networks during wakefullness and sleep.
  72. (2002). Conformational changes in surface structures of isolated connexin 26 gap junctions.
  73. (2008). Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): Kindred disorders of autonomic regulation.
  74. (2000). Connections between retrotrapezoid nucleus and nucleus tractus solitarii in cat
  75. (1997). Connections of the caudal ventrolateral medullary reticular formation in the cat brainstem.
  76. (2001). Connexin 26 and basic fibroblast growth factor are expressed primarily in the subpial and subependymal layers in adult brain paranchyma: roles in stem cell proliferation and morphological plasticity?
  77. (2008). Connexin 43 hemichannels are permeable to ATP.
  78. (2004). Connexin43 and connexin26 form gap junctions, but not heteromeric channels in co-expressing cells.
  79. (1998). Connexins regulate calcium signalling by controlling ATP release.
  80. (1998). Contribution of Ca 2+-activated K + channels to central chemosensitivity in cultivated neurons of fetal rat medulla.
  81. (1998). Control of sympathetic outflows by the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.
  82. (2001). Cytoarchitecture of central chemoreceptors in the mamalian ventral medulla.
  83. (2001). Decreased CSF pH at ventral brain stem induces widespread c-Fos immunoreactivity in rat brain neurons.
  84. (2008). Defects in breathing and thermoregulation in mice with near-complete absence of central serotonin neurons.
  85. (2003). Delayed neuronal maturation of the medullary arcuate nucleus in sudden infant death syndrome.
  86. (2006). Development and pH sensitivity of the respiratory rhythm of fetal mice in vitro.
  87. (1999). Development of chemosensitivity of rat medullary raphé neurons.
  88. (2002). Development of CO2-response in the early newborn period in rat.
  89. (2001). Development of in vivo ventillatory and single chemosensitive neuron response to hypercapnia in rats.
  90. (2001). Developmental changes in intracellular pH regulation in medullary neurons of the rat.
  91. (1997). Different sensitivities to pH of ATP-induced currents at four cloned P2X receptors.
  92. (1985). Differential effects of carbon dioxide and pH on central chemoreceptors in the rat in vitro.
  93. (2001). Differential expression of connexin26 and connexin32 in the pre-Bötzinger complex of neonatal and adult rat.
  94. (1999). Differential regulation of connexin 26 and 43 in murine neocortical precursors.
  95. (1999). Distribution of the P2X2 receptor subunit of the ATP-gated ion channels in the rat central nervous system.
  96. (1980). Effect of apamin on the electrical responses of smooth muscle to adenosine 5'-triphosphate and to nonadrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve stimulation.
  97. (2006). Effect of chronic hypoxia on purinergic synaptic transmission in the rat carotid body.
  98. (2003). Effect of external magnesium and calcium on human connexin46 hemichannels.
  99. (1997). Effect on breathing of surface ventrolateral medullary cooling in awake, anesthetized and asleep goats.
  100. (2006). Effects of ATP-induced leg vasodilation on Vo2 peak and leg O2 extraction during maximal exercise.
  101. (1998). Effects of calcium and magnesium on central respiratory control in the brainstem-spinal cord of neonatal rat.
  102. (1996). Effects of cooling the ventrolateral medulla on diaphragm activity during NREM sleep.
  103. (2006). Effects of electrical stimulation of the medullary raphé nuclei on respiratory movement in rats
  104. (2003). Effects of OPC-51803, a novel, nonpeptide vasopressin V2-receptor agonist, on micturition frequencey in brattleboro and aged rats.
  105. (1997). Effects of unilateral lesions of retrotrapezoid nucleus on breathing in awake rats.
  106. (1970). Effects on respiration and circulation of electrically stimulation the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata.
  107. (2006). Electrophysiological and morphological characteristics of GABAergic respiratory neurons in the mouse pre-Bötzinger complex.
  108. (2004). Endogenous 5-HT(1/2) systems and the newborn rat respiratory control; A comparative in vivo and in vitro study.
  109. (2001). Evidence for the involvement of purinergic signalling in the control of respiration.
  110. (1970). Evidence that adenosine triphosphate or a related nucleotide is the transmitter substance released by non-adrenergic inhibitory nerves in the gut.
  111. (1998). Evidence that P2X purinoceptors mediate the excitatory effects of αβmethylene-ADP in rat locus coeruleus neurones.
  112. (2007). Exocytosis of ATP from astrocyte progenitors modulates spontaneous Ca 2+ oscillations and cell migration.
  113. (1993). Expression of oligodendrocyte-associated genes in cell lines derived from human gliomas and neuroblastomas.
  114. (2001). Expression of P2X2 and P2X3 receptor subunits in rat carotid body afferent neurones: role in chemosensory signalling.
  115. (2004). Extracellular ATP enhances ASIC3-like current in ischemia sensing neurons through an electrically quiet ion channel. Society for neuroscience.
  116. (2006). Functional connexin "hemichannels": a critical appraisal.
  117. (2008). Functional neuroanatomy of the human pre-Bötzinger complex with particular reference to sudden unexplained perinatal and infant death.
  118. (1998). Functional Significance of Cell Volume Regulatory Mechanisms.
  119. (2000). Functional synaptic connections among respiratory neurons.
  120. (2007). Gap junction and purinergic P2 recepor proteins as a functional unit: insights from transcriptomics.
  121. (2005). Gap junction hemichannelmediated ATP release and hearing controls in the inner ear.
  122. (2006). Gap junctions and connexon hemichannels in human embryonic stem cells.
  123. (2002). Gap junctions in CO2-chemoreception and respiratory control.
  124. (2000). Gap junctions in the nervous system.
  125. (2002). Gap junctions: structure and function (review).
  126. (2008). Gating the pore of P2X receptor channels.
  127. (2006). Glial cells dilate and constrict blood vessels: a mechanism of neurovascular coupling.
  128. (1990). Glucose utilization, blood flow and capillary density in the ventrolateral medulla of the rat.
  129. (2004). Glutamatergic neuronal projections from the marginal layer of the rostral ventral medulla to the respiratory centers in rats.
  130. (1999). Hetero-oligomeric assembly of P2X receptor subunits.
  131. (2003). Heterogeneous patterns of pH regulation in glial cells in the dorsal and ventral medulla.
  132. (2001). Heteromultimeric P2X1/2 receptors show a novel sensitivity to extracellular pH.
  133. (2007). High CO2 chemosensitivity verus wide sensing spectrum:a paradoxical problem and its solutions in cultured brainstem neurons.
  134. (2003). Highly H +-sensitive neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla of the rat.
  135. (2001). Identification of cells expressing
  136. (2002). Immunoreacitive localisation of P2Y1receptors within the rat and humannodose ganglia and rat brainstem: comparison with [α 33P]deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate autoradiography.
  137. (1998). Important role of carotid afferents in control of breathing.
  138. (1974). Influence of CSF calcium concentration on the ventilatory response to CO2 and O2. Pflügers Archive,
  139. (2003). Influence of hypercapnia and hypocapnia on bladder contractions and their respiratory consequences.
  140. (2002). Intercellular calcium signalling in astrocytes via ATP release through connexin hemichannels.
  141. (1996). Intracellular pH regulation in cultured microglial cells from mouse brain.
  142. (2001). Intracellular pH regulation of neurons in chemosensitive and nonchemosensitive areas of brain slices.
  143. (2004). Inversion of both gating polarity and CO2 sensitivity of voltage gating with D3N mutation of Cx50.
  144. (2006). Involvement of adenosine in depression of synaptic transmission during hypercapnia in isolated spinal cord of neonatal rats.
  145. (2002). Involvement of rat lateral septum-acetylcholine pressor system in central amygdaloid nucleus-emotional pressor circuit
  146. (2008). Involvement of the lateral habenula in the regulation of generalized anxiety- and panic-related defensive responses in rats.
  147. (1996). Ionic permeability of, and divalent cation effects on, two ATP-gated cation channels (P2X receptors) expressed in mamalian cells.
  148. (1999). Is the chemical gate of connexins voltage sensitive? behaviour of Cx32 wild-type and mutant channels.
  149. (1985). Is there a basis for distinguishing two types of P2-purinoceptor? General pharmacology,
  150. (1997). Life without ventilatory chemosensitivity.
  151. (2003). Long-term potentiation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission induced by activation of presynaptic P2Y recptors in the rat medial habenula nucleus.
  152. (2006). Mechanisms of CO2/H + chemoreception by respiratory rhythm generator neurons in the medulla from newborn rats in vitro.
  153. (1996). Mechanisms of intracellular calcium wave regulation in adult astrocytes.
  154. (2005). Medullary serotonergic neurons modulate the ventilatory response to hypercapnia, but not hypoxia in conscious rats.
  155. (2003). Midbrain serotonergic neurons are central chemoreceptors.
  156. (2003). Modulation of voltageand ligand-gated ion channels by neuronal P2Y receptors.
  157. (1996). Molecular cloning and functional expression of mouse connexin-30, a gap junction gene highly expressed in adult brain and skin.
  158. (1999). Molecular Cloning and Functional Expression of the Mouse Gap177 Junction Gene Connexin-57 in Human HeLa Cells.
  159. (2005). Molecular responses to acidosis of central chemosensitive neurons in brain.
  160. (1990). Monoclonal antibody R2D5 reveals midsagittal radial glial system in postnatally developing and adult brainstem.
  161. (2001). Multiple pathways in the trafficking and assembly of connexin 26, 32 and 43 into gap junction intercellular communication channels.
  162. (2000). Multiple sites for central chemoreception: their role in response sensitivity and in sleep and wakefullness.
  163. (2003). Multiple targets of chemosensitive signaling in locus coeruleus neurons: role of K + and Ca 2+ channels. American journal of physiology-
  164. (2005). Neonatal maturation of the hypercapnic ventillatory response and central neural CO2chemosensitivity.
  165. (2000). Neuroanatomical hypothesis of panic disorder, revised.
  166. (2007). Neuronal somatic ATP release triggers neuron-satellite glial cell communication in dorsal root ganglion.
  167. (2007). neurotransmission of the sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex in the commisural nucleus tractus solitarii of awake rats and in the working heart-brainstem preparation.
  168. (1978). Nuclei of the solitary ract: efferent projections to the lower brain stem and spinal cord of the cat.
  169. (2003). Oligodendrocyte progenitor enrichment in the connexin32 null-mutant mouse.
  170. (2005). On the peripheral and central chemoreception and control of breathing: an emerging role of ATP.
  171. (2003). Ontogeny of central CO2 chemoreception: chemosensitivity in the ventral medulla of developing bullfrogs.
  172. (2004). Opposite Cx32 and Cx26 voltage-gating response to CO2 reflects opposite voltage-gating polarity.
  173. (2003). Opposite metabolic changes in the habenula and ventral tegmental area of a genetic model of helpless behavior.
  174. (2008). Oxygen-glucose deprivation induces ATP release via maxi-anion channels.
  175. (2004). P2 receptors modulate respiratory rhythm but do not contribute to central CO2 chemosensitivity in vitro.
  176. (2005). P2X purinoceptor subtypes on paraventricular nucleus neurons projecting to the rostral ventrolateral medulla in the rat.
  177. (1998). P2X: The ionotropic receptor for extracellular ATP.
  178. (2006). P2Y receptormediated excitation in the posteria hypothalamus.
  179. (2000). P2Y1 purinoceptormediated Ca 2+ signalling and Ca 2+ wave propagation in dorsal spinal cord astrocytes.
  180. (2007). P2Y1 receptor modulation of the pre-Bötzinger complex inspiratory rhythm generating network in vitro.
  181. (2004). Pannexin membrane channels are mechanosensitive conduits for ATP.
  182. (2006). Peripheral chemoreceptor inputs to retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) CO2-sensitive neurons in rats.
  183. (1996). pH regulation and proton signalling by glial cells.
  184. (2002). pH-dependent intramollecular binding and sructure involving Cx43 cytoplasmic domains.
  185. (1990). Phosphorylation of connexin 32, a hepatocyte gap-junction protein, by CAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C and Ca 2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.
  186. (2008). PHOX2B mutations and ventilatory control.
  187. (2003). Pivotal role of nucleotide P2X2 receptor subunit of the ATP-Gated ion channel mediating ventilatory responses to hypoxia.
  188. (2006). Pore properties and parmacological features of the P2X receptor channel in airway ciliated cells.
  189. (1997). Postnatal changes in electrophysiological properties of rat nucleus trauctus solitarii neurons.
  190. (2006). Postnatal developmental changes in CO2 sensitivity in rats.
  191. (1991). Pre-Bötzinger complex: a brainstem region that may generate respiratory rhythm in mammals
  192. (2008). Probenecid, a gout remedy, inhibits pannexin 1 channels.
  193. (2008). Projection structure of a N-terminal deletion mutant of connexin 26 channel with decreased central pore density.
  194. (1992). Projections from the comissural subnucleus of the nucleus of the solitary tract: an anterograde tracing study in the cat.
  195. (2004). Properties of connexin26 hemichannels expressed in xenopus oocytes.
  196. (2007). Purinergic modulation of respiration via medullary raphe nuclei in rats.
  197. (2003). Purinergic signalling in the medullary mechanisms of respiratory control in the rat: respiratory neurones express the P2X2 receptor subunit.
  198. (2002). Quantification of the response of rat medullary raphé neurones to independent changes in pHo and PCO2.
  199. (1999). Rapid and direct effects of pH on connexins revealed by the connexin 46 hemichannel preparation.
  200. (2005). Re: Retrotrapezoid nucleus: a litmus test for the identification of central chemoreceptors.
  201. (2005). Receptor-mediated glutamate release from volume sensitive channels in astrocytes.
  202. (1998). Receptors for purines and pyrimidines.
  203. (2007). Regulated ATP release from astrocytes through lysosome exocytosis.
  204. (2003). Regulation and modulation of pH in the brain.
  205. (1999). Regulation of connexin channels by pH: direct action of the protonated form of taurine and other aminosulfonates.
  206. (2005). Regulation of ventral surface chemoreceptors by the central respiratory pattern generator
  207. (2008). Release of ATP and glutamate in the nucleus tractus solitarii mediate pulmonary stretch receptor (Bruer-Hering) reflex pathway.
  208. (2005). Release of ATP in the ventral medulla during hypoxia in rats: role in hypoxic ventilatory response.
  209. (2004). Respiratory control by ventral surface chemoreceptor neurons in rats.
  210. (1999). Respiratory network function in the isolated brainstem-spinal cord of newborn rats Progress in
  211. (1963). Respiratory responses mediated through superficial chemosensitive areas on the medulla
  212. (2003). Respiratory responses to pH in the absence of pontine and dorsal medullary areas in the new born mouse in vitro.
  213. (1998). Respiratory-modulated membrane potential and chemosensitivity of locus coeruleus neurones in the rat in vitro brainstem-spinal cord of the neonatal rat.
  214. (2005). Response of membrane potential and intracellular pH to hypercapnia in neurons and astrocytes from rat retrotrapezoid nucleus.
  215. (1995). Response of serotonergic caudal raphé neurons in relation to specific motor activities in freely moving cats.
  216. (1999). Responses to hypoxia of petrosal ganglia in vitro.
  217. (2005). Retrotrapezoid nucleus: a litmus test for the identification of central chemoreceptors.
  218. (1997). Role of ATP in fast excitatory synaptic potentials in locus coeruleus neurones of the rat.
  219. (2002). Role of intracellular and extracellular pH in the chemosensitive response of rat locus coeruleus neurones.
  220. (2007). Role of persistent sodium current in mouse pre-Bötzinger Complex neurons and respiratory rhythm generation.
  221. (1995). Rostral ventral medullary surface activity during hypercapnic challenges in awake and anesthetized goats
  222. (2000). Sensing arterial CO2levels: a role for medullary P2X receptors.
  223. (2002). Sensory afferent selective role for P2 receptors in the nucleus tactus solitarii for mediating the cardiac component of the peripheral chemoreceptor reflex in rats.
  224. (2007). Serotonergic neurons activate chemosensitive retrotrapezoid nucleus neurons by a pH-independent mechanism.
  225. (2004). Serotonergic neurons as carbon dioxide sensors that maintain pH homeostasis.
  226. (2008). Serotonin transporter knockout mice have a reduced ventilatory response to hypercapnia (predominantly in males) but not to hypoxia.
  227. (2006). Simultaneous inhibition of caudal medullary raphe and retrotrapezoid nucleus decreases breathing and the CO2 response in conscious rats.
  228. (1930). Sinus caroticus and respiratory reflexes: I. Cerebral blood flow and respiration. Adrenaline apnoea.
  229. (2000). Soluable adenylyl cyclase as an evoultionary conserved bicarbonate sensor.
  230. (2006). Species specificity of mamalian connexin-26 to form open voltage-gated hemichannels.
  231. (1995). Specific permeability and selective formation of gap junction channels in connexin-transfected HeLa cells.
  232. (2005). Stimulation of the locus coeruleus elicits noradrenaline and dopamine release in the medial prefrontal and parietal cortex.
  233. (2000). Structure of the amino terminus of a gap junction protein.
  234. (2009). Structure of the connexin 26 gap junction channel at 3.5Ǻ resolution.
  235. (2002). Substance P-saporin lesions of neurons with NK1 receptors in one chemosensitive site in rats decreases ventillation and chemosensitivity.
  236. (2007). TASK channels determine pH sensitivity in select respiratory neurons but do not contribute to central respiratory chemosensitivity.
  237. (1997). TASK, a human background K+ channel to sense external pH variations near physiological pH.
  238. (1986). Temporal pattern of arterial CO2 partial pressure during exercise in humans.
  239. (2008). The
  240. (1971). The binding of carbon dioxide by horse haemoglobin.
  241. (2006). The cardiorespiratory activation response at an arousal from sleep is independent of the level of CO2.
  242. (2000). The human nucleus of the solitary tract: visceral pathways revealed with an "in vitro" postmortem tracing method.
  243. (1976). The influence of CSF calcium and magnesium on the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide during hyperoxia.
  244. (1997). The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus influences respiratory timing and activity in the rat.
  245. (2004). The permeability of gap junction channels to probes of different size is dependent on connexin composition and permeant pore affinities.
  246. (1929). The physiological activity of adenine compounds with special reference to their action upon the mammalian heart.
  247. (2006). The retrotrapezoid nucleus and the ‘drive’ to breathe.
  248. (2007). The role of pannexin 1 hemichannels in ATP release and cell-cell communication in mouse taste buds.
  249. (2001). The single channel properties of purinergic P2X ATP receptors in outside-out patches from rat hypothalamic paraventricular parvocells.
  250. (1997). The structure of the complex between rubisco and its natural substrate ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate.
  251. (1994). The topological structure of connexin 26 and its distribution compared to connexin 32 in hepatic gap junctions.
  252. (2003). The voltage gates of connexin channels are sensitive to CO2.
  253. (1996). Time course of luciferyl adenylate synthesis in the firefly luciferase reaction FEBS letters,
  254. (1995). Transduction of chemostimuli by the type 1 carotid body cell.
  255. (2008). Tripartite function of ATP in vascular signalling.
  256. (1997). Two distinct gating mechanisms in gap junction channels: CO2-sensitive and voltage sensitive.
  257. (1999). Unilateral focal lesions in the rostral medulla influence chemosensitivity and breathing measured during wakefullness, sleep, and exercise.
  258. (2004). Ventilatory effects of gap junction blockade in the RTN in awake rats.
  259. (2006). Ventilatory response to hypercapnia and hypoxia after extensive lesion of medullary serotonergic neurons in newborn conscious piglets.
  260. (2004). Ventillatory effects of gap junction blockade in the NTS in awake rats.
  261. (1998). Ventillatory effects of glial dysfunction in a rat brain stem chemoreceptor region.
  262. (2001). Ventillatory effects of impaired glia function in a brain stem chemoreceptor region in the concious rat.
  263. (2002). Volume-regulated anion channels serve as an auto/paracrine nucleotide release pathway in aortic endothelial cells.
  264. (2002). α1 connexin (connexin43) gap junctions and activities of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C in developing mouse heart.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.