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What Is Direct Allorecognition?

By Dominic A. Boardman, Jacinta Jacob, Lesley A. Smyth, Giovanna Lombardi and Robert I. Lechler


Direct allorecognition is the process by which\ud donor-derived major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide\ud complexes, typically presented by donor-derived ‘passenger’\ud dendritic cells, are recognised directly by recipient T cells.\ud In this review, we discuss the two principle theories which\ud have been proposed to explain why individuals possess a\ud high-precursor frequency of T cells with direct allospecificity\ud and how self-restricted T cells recognise allogeneic MHCpeptide\ud complexes. These theories, both of which are supported\ud by functional and structural data, suggest that T cells\ud recognising allogeneic MHC-peptide complexes focus either\ud on the allopeptides bound to the allo-MHC molecules or the\ud allo-MHC molecules themselves. We discuss how direct\ud alloimmune responses may be sustained long term, the consequences\ud of this for graft outcome and highlight novel strategies\ud which are currently being investigated as a potential\ud means of reducing rejection mediated through this pathway

Publisher: Springer Verlag
Year: 2016
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