Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Growing up good?: medical, social hygiene and youth work perspectives on young women, 1918-1939

By Carolyn Oldfield

Abstract

This thesis explores the discourses and organisations through which girls' development towards adult womanhood was framed and managed during the inter-war period. It examines how contemporary perceptions of social change following the First World War resulted in widespread scrutiny of girls' circumstances and behaviour, particularly their sexual conduct. It argues that representations and responses to girls were increasingly underpinned by the conceptualisation of adolescence as a critical period of change and instability. This understanding of adolescence pervaded both medical and lay discourses. It was interpreted through the prisms of gender and class, and served to legitimise increasing levels of intervention into girls' lives, mainly on the basis of their sexual behaviour or perceived exposure to sexual risk.\ud \ud Adolescence was also represented as the period in which individuals developed moral agency. This study examines the increased importance ascribed to the moral training of the adolescent, in the context of widespread agreement of the need to express traditional moral values in ways that took account of social change. This was seen as particularly important for girls, not only because of their changing circumstances, but because of women's new status as enfranchised citizens.\ud \ud The thesis explores the work of the Girl Guides Association and the Young Women's Christian Association in some detail. These organisations drew upon the discourse of social change, adolescence and citizenship to claim an enhanced role in shaping the development of young women. While histories of girls' youth organisations have tended to portray them as conservative movements intent on socialising girls into their future role as wives and mothers, this study highlights these organisations' commitment to preparing girls to understand and exercise their future responsibilities as citizens, and argues that such organisations were more complex in their purposes, and more varied in their approaches, than has previously been recognised

Topics: HQ
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:3083

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1998). (Uni)Forming Youth: Girl Guides and Boy Scouts in
  2. (1961). 1877-1959: A Personal Memoir by His Friends and Family
  3. (1997). A Century of Women: The History of Women
  4. (1991). A Fit Person to Be Removed": Personal Accounts of Life in a Mental Deficiency Institution
  5. (1918). A Health Reader for Girls (London,
  6. (1987). A New Generation of Women": Progressive Psychiatrists and the Hypersexual Female',
  7. (1995). A Personal, Individual, Concrete Affair': The Development of Health Education in Hertfordshire 1918-39',
  8. (1988). A Secret World of Sex: Forbidden Fruit: The British Experience 1900-1950
  9. A Text-book of Mental Deficiency (Amentia) (London,
  10. (1919). A Textbook of Sex Education for Parents and Teachers (London,
  11. (1984). A Woman's Place: An Oral History of Working-Class Women 1890-1940
  12. (1992). A World of Girls (London,
  13. (1900). Abortion in England,
  14. (1998). Acts of Female Indecency": Sexology's Intervention in Legislating Lesbianism'
  15. (1904). Adolescence: Its Psychology and its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology,
  16. (1932). Adolescent Girlhood
  17. (1940). Adolescent Leisure in a Working-Class District',
  18. (1880). Adrift: Independent Wage Earners in Chicago,
  19. (1975). Advice to Historians on Advice to Mothers',
  20. (1997). African American Women and Christian Activism: New York's Black YWCA,
  21. (1936). Agnes, `Changes in Social Life'
  22. (1913). An examination of certain aspects of the City of Leicester's administration of the Mental Deficiency Acts
  23. (1936). An Introduction to Sex Education (London,
  24. An Introduction to the Physiology and Psychology of Sex (London, 1934,1 s`
  25. (1900). Anxieties: Male Sexuality,
  26. (1920). Association for Moral and Social Hygiene, The State and Sexual Morality
  27. (1935). Association, 1885-1935: A Brief Record of 5O Years'
  28. (1921). Association, Committee for the Extension of Guide Training to Mentally, Morally and Physically Defective Girls, Girl Guide Companies in Institutions (London,
  29. (1932). Asssociation, `Report of Mental Deficiency Committee', Supplement to the
  30. (1934). Awkward Questions of Childhood: A Practical Handbook on Sex Education for Parents and Teachers (London,
  31. (1989). Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars,
  32. (1993). Backlash" in Historical Context,
  33. (1995). Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality 1885-1914
  34. (1989). Becoming a Woman in London in the 1920s and 1930s'
  35. (1973). Beyond Suffrage: English Feminism in the 1920s',
  36. (1919). Boy and Girl War-Products: Their Reconstruction',
  37. (1997). Bringing Beauty and Brightness to the Back Streets": Health Education and Public Health in England and Wales, 1890-1940',
  38. (1990). British Feminism in the 1920s',
  39. (1988). British Social Trends since 1900: a Guide to the Changing
  40. (1933). Case Studies of Normal Adolescent Girls (New York and London,
  41. (1984). Charity Girls" and City Pleasures: Historical Notes on WorkingClass Sexuality, 1880-1920',
  42. (1996). Cinema Culture and Femininity in the 1930s'
  43. (1988). Cinema, Censorship and Sexuality 1909-1925
  44. (2000). Citizens Not Feminists: The Boundary Negotiated between Citizenship and Feminism by Mainstream Women's Organisations in England, 1928-39',
  45. (1991). Citizens: The State and the Poor in Twentieth Century Britain (London,
  46. (1998). Classes and Cultures. England 1918-1951
  47. (1985). Cleansing the Portals of Life": the Venereal Disease Campaign in the Early Twentieth Century'
  48. (1932). Clubs, a Practical Handbook for Workers Among Girls of Eleven to Fourteen, Including Games and List of Yarns (London,
  49. (1986). Coming ofAge: Adolescence in Britain 1860-1960
  50. (1957). Commission on the Law Relating to Mental Illness and Mental Deficiency 1954-57, Report Presented to Parliament by
  51. (1921). Commission, Prevention of Venereal Disease [Being the Report of and the Evidence Taken by the Special Committee on Venereal Disease]
  52. (1920). Commission, Problems of Population and Parenthood [Being the Second Report of and the Chief Evidence Taken by the National Birth-Rate Commission 1918-1920]
  53. (1925). Commission, The Ethics of Birth Control Being the Report of the Special Committee Appointed by the National Council of Public Morals
  54. (1933). Commonsense About Sex (London,
  55. (1999). Community Care and Mental Deficiency 1913 to 1945' in Peter Bartlett and
  56. (1922). Conception Control and Its Effects on the Individual and the Nation,
  57. (1920). Constructing Girlhood: Popular Magazines for Girls Growing up in England,
  58. (1925). Contemporary published sources Allen, Mary S., edited and arranged by Julie Helen Heyneman, The Pioneer Policewoman (London,
  59. (1975). Courtship and Marriage in Preston between the Wars',
  60. (1991). Crime and Custody in Victorian England
  61. (1987). Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-Moral Politics in England since 1830
  62. (1979). Daughters and Mothers - Maids and Mistresses: Domestic Service Between the Wars',
  63. (1914). Delinquency and Citizenship: Reclaiming the Young Offender,
  64. (1923). Delinquency and Mental Defect',
  65. (1968). Delinquency in Girls (London,
  66. (1990). Demography and Degeneration: Eugenics and the Declining Birthrate in Twentieth-Century Britain (Chapel Hill and London,
  67. (1988). Developing Youth Work: Informal Education, Mutual Aid and Popular Practice (Milton Keynes,
  68. (1992). Disruptive Bodies and Unruly Sex: the Regulation of Reproduction and Sexuality in the Nineteenth Century',
  69. (1992). Dope Girls: the Birth of the British Drug Underground
  70. (1994). Educate or Domesticate?: Early Twentieth Century Pressures on Older Girls in Elementary School',
  71. (1929). Education and Board of Control, Report of the Mental Deficiency Committee being a Joint Committee of the Board of Education and Board of Control (London,
  72. (1924). Education and Social Hygiene' in National Council for Combating Venereal Disease,
  73. (1923). Emslie, The Hygiene of Marriage (London,
  74. (1931). England's Girls and England's Future
  75. (1997). English Feminism 1780-1980
  76. (1969). English Youth Movements, 1908-1930',
  77. (1938). Enquiry into Measures of Rehabilitation of Prostitutes (Part One), Prostitutes: Their Early Lives
  78. (1979). Eugenicists, Doctors and the Quest for National Efficiency: an Educational Crusade, 1900-1939',
  79. (1900). Eugenics and Politics in Britain,
  80. (1979). Eugenics and Progressive Thought: A Study in Ideological Affinity',
  81. (1989). Eugenics and the Campaign for Voluntary Sterilization in Britain Between the Wars',
  82. (1982). Eugenics and the Feeble-Minded: the Parliamentary Debates of 1912-14',
  83. (1984). Eugenics and the Left',
  84. (1983). Eugenics, Medicine and Mental Deficiency: an Introduction',
  85. (1977). Explaining Social Policy: the English Mental Deficiency Act of 1913',
  86. (1900). Fair Sex: Family Size and Structure,
  87. (1992). Family Ties: Lady Child-Savers and Girls of the Street 1850-1925'
  88. (1996). Family, Community and State: The Micro-politics of Mental Deficiency'
  89. (1919). Fathers and Mothers of Happy Girls, undated leaflet, c.
  90. (1998). Feminism and Eugenics'
  91. (1997). Feminizing Venereal Disease:
  92. (1938). Fifth Report on the Work of the Children's Branch (London,
  93. (1973). For Church, Queen and Family: the Girls' Friendly Society 1874-1920',
  94. (1924). for Combating Venereal Disease,
  95. (1924). for the Unmarried Mother and Her Child, Annual Reports,
  96. (1934). for the Unmarried Mother and Her Child, The Mental Deficiency Problem and Maternity and Child Welfare (London,
  97. (1985). For Worse: British Marriages, 1600 to the Present
  98. (1991). Forever England: Femininity, Literature and Conservatism Between the Wars (London,
  99. (1997). Forgotten Lives: Exploring the History of Learning Disability
  100. (1928). Fourth Report on the Work of the Children's Branch (London,
  101. (1936). Freedom and its Results by Five Women
  102. (1935). Friendship's Highway: Being the History of the Girls' Friendly Society,
  103. (1900). Gender and Poverty: Working-class Culture in Salford and Manchester,
  104. (1995). Gender, Generation, and the Politics of Guiding and Scouting in Interwar Britain'
  105. (2001). Gendering Young People - Work, Leisure and Girls' Clubs: the Work of the National Organisation of Girls' Clubs and its Successors 1911-1961'
  106. (1925). Girl Guides Association (Extension Branch), Report of the Extension Conference held on Wednesday March 40', 1925, from 11-6.30 at Denison House,
  107. (1918). Girl Guides Association, Annual Reports,
  108. (1993). Girls and the Perception of Sexual Danger in the Victorian Reformatory System',
  109. (1981). Girls Growing Up
  110. (1942). Girls Growing Up (London,
  111. (1996). Girls, Deficiency and Delinquency',
  112. (2000). Giving Girls a Voice: Pearl Jephcott's Work for Young People',
  113. (1935). Growing and Growing Up: a Book for Girls (London,
  114. (1996). Growing Up Poor: Home, School and Street in London 1870-1914
  115. (1982). Guardians of the Race", or "Vampires upon the Nation's Health"?: Female Sexuality and its Regulation in Early Twentieth-Century Britain',
  116. (1980). Health Education Policy 1916-1926: Venereal Disease and the Prophylaxis Dilemma',
  117. (1917). Health of Working Girls: a Handbook for Welfare Supervisors and Others (London,
  118. (1998). Hilary Land Jane Lewis, Lone Motherhood in Twentieth-Century Britain: From Footnote to Front Page
  119. (1983). Hooligan: A History of Respectable Fears (Basingstoke and London,
  120. (1981). Hooligans or Rebels?: An Oral History of Working-class Childhood and Youth 1889-1939
  121. (1935). Hospital Almoners Association, The Hospital Almoner: A Brief Study
  122. (1929). How Girls Can Help Towards Sex Hygiene (London,
  123. (1983). How to Curb the Fertility of the Unfit: the Feeble-Minded in Edwardian Britain',
  124. (1921). How to Enlighten our Children, a Book for Parents (London,
  125. (1927). Hygiene Council, A Brief Survey of the Conditions Obtaining
  126. (1932). Hygiene Council, Preparation for Marriage: a Handbook Prepared by a Special Committee on Behalf of the British Social Hygiene Council (London,
  127. (1900). Identity and Private Life in Britain,
  128. (1995). Images of Deviance: Visual Representations of Mental Defectives in Early Twentieth-century Medical Texts',
  129. (1990). Images of Youth: Age, Class and the Male Youth Problem,
  130. (1978). Imperialism and Motherhood',
  131. (1992). In Search of "The Real Thing": Ideologies of Love, Modem Romance, and Women's Sexual Subjectivity in the United States, 1920-40',
  132. (1980). In Search of a Real Equality: Women Between the Wars',
  133. (1920). Incarcerating "Bad Girls": the Regulation of Sexuality through the Female Refuges Act in Ontario,
  134. (1985). Independent Women: Work and Communityfor Single Women 1850-1920
  135. (1997). Intersex" and "Dirty Girls": Mass-Observation and Working-Class Sexuality in England in the 1930s',
  136. (1936). Keeping Fit: A Health Bookfor Senior Girls (London,
  137. (1994). Khaki Fever" and its Control: Gender, Class, Age and Sexual Morality on the British Homefront in the First World War',
  138. (1997). Leisure for Girls: Girls' Clubs in Victorian and Edwardian Manchester',
  139. (1932). Leisure in the Modern World (London,
  140. (1989). Lessoning Lesbians: Girls' Schools, Coeducation and AntiLesbianism Between the Wars'
  141. (1984). Look Out for the "Good Time" Girl: Dangerous Sexualities as a Threat to National Health'
  142. (1993). Making Peace: the Reconstruction of Gender in Interwar
  143. (1990). Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud
  144. (1982). Male Vice and Feminist Virtue: Feminism and the Politics of Prostitution in Nineteenth-Century Britain',
  145. (1985). Managing the Delinquent: the Children's Branch of the Home Office, 1913-30'
  146. (1918). Married Love: A New Contribution to the Solution of Sex Difficulties (London, 1923,1"
  147. (1983). Medicine, Morals and Mental Deficiency: the Contribution of Doctors to the Development of Special Education in England',
  148. (1932). Mental Deficiency Practice: The Procedure for the Ascertainment and Disposal of the Mentally Defective (London,
  149. (1924). Ministry of Health, Annual Reports of the Chief Medical Officer of the Ministry of Health,
  150. (1938). Modern Developments in Mental Welfare Work',
  151. Modern Marriage (London,
  152. (1983). Money, Morality and Mental Deficiency: An Examination of the Attitudes and Influences that Caused Destitute Unmarried Mothers to be Certified as "Moral Defectives" under the Mental Deficiency Act of 1913' (MSocSc dissertation,
  153. (1925). Moral Evil in London (London,
  154. (1990). Mothers for the Empire'? The Girl Guides Association in Britain, 1909-1939',
  155. (1935). Mrs C., `Sex-Delinquency'
  156. (1935). No Bed of Roses: the Diary of a Lost Soul (London,
  157. (1996). Not Worse Than Other Girls": the Convent-Based Rehabilitation of Fallen Women in Victorian Britain',
  158. (1917). of Public Morals, The Cinema: Its Present Position and Future Possibilities, Being the Report of and Chief Evidence Taken by the Cinema Commission of Inquiry Instituted by the National Council of Public Morals
  159. (1925). of Public Morals, The Ethics of Birth Control Being the Report of the Special Committee Appointed by the National Council of Public Morals
  160. (1981). of Youth Clubs, `Girls' Clubs News 1911-1981: A Personal Selection of Articles, Anecdotes and Pictures from Club Magazines of the last 70 Years', unpaginated supplement in Youth Clubs,
  161. Official government publications Board of Control,
  162. (1994). On Her Their Lives Depend: Munitions Workers in the Great War (Berkeley,
  163. (1987). Out of the Cage: Women's Experiences in Two World Wars (London,
  164. (1909). Parenthood and Race Culture: an Outline of Eugenics (London,
  165. (1916). Paths: An Inquiry into the Causes Which Contribute to the Making of the Prostitute (London,
  166. (1922). Penal Discipline
  167. (1979). People and the Youth Service (London,
  168. (1992). Playing Hard to Get": Working-class Women, Sexuality and Respectability in
  169. (1995). Policing Gender, Class and Family: Britain,
  170. (1983). Political Anatomy of the Body: Medical Knowledge
  171. (1999). Popular Sexual Knowledges and Women's Agency in 1920s England: Marie Stopes's Married Love
  172. (1934). Poverty and Prostitution Comprising Economic Conditions in Relation to Prostitution, by Sybil Neville-Rolfe,
  173. (1927). Private Words to Women: Containing Wisdom for Wives and Hygiene for Ladies (London,
  174. (1992). Producers of Legitimacy: Homes for Unmarried Mothers in the 1950s'
  175. (1931). Propaganda Methods and Results: Great Britain' in British Social Hygiene Council,
  176. (1933). Prostitution: a Survey and a Challenge (London,
  177. (2000). Prostitution: Prevention and Reform in England,
  178. (1994). Punish and Critique: Towards a Feminist Analysis of Penality (London,
  179. (1931). Recent Views on Modern Marriage',
  180. Report of the Departmental Committee on Sexual Offences against Young Persons (London, Cmd 2561,1925).
  181. Report of the Departmental Committee on the Treatment of Young Offenders (London,
  182. (1923). Report on the Work of the Children's Branch (London,
  183. (1997). Representations of the Young',
  184. (1993). Representations of Youth:
  185. (1996). Rescue and Reform: Girls, Delinquency and Industrial Schools 1908-1933 (PhD thesis,
  186. (1986). Respectable Sinners: Salvation Army Rescue Work with Unmarried Mothers, 1884-1914',
  187. (1930). Rovering to Success: a Book of Life-Sport for
  188. (1916). Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases, Final Report of the Commissioners (London,
  189. (1992). Rules of Desire. Sex in Britain: World War 1 to the Present (London,
  190. (1914). Secondary published sources Alberti, Johanna, Beyond Suffrage: Feminists in War and Peace,
  191. (1983). Seeking Ecstacy on the Battlefield: Danger and Pleasure in Nineteenth Century Feminist Sexual Thought',
  192. (1983). Serving Two Masters? The Introduction of a Marriage Bar in Teaching in the 1920s', in The London Feminist History Group, The Sexual Dynamics of History: Men's Powers, Women's Resistance
  193. (1937). Seven Stages of Childhood (London,
  194. (1935). Sex and a Changing Civilisation (London,
  195. (1921). Sex and Common Sense
  196. (1935). Sex and Life: A Companion Volume to "The Woman's Book of Health "
  197. (1926). Sex and the
  198. (1993). Sex and the British: a Twentieth-Century History (London,
  199. (1928). Sex and Youth
  200. (1979). Sex Education Books for Young Adults 1892-1979
  201. (1934). Sex Education for Children (London,
  202. (1995). Sex Education in Britain 1870-1995',
  203. (1933). Sex in Life.
  204. (1932). Sex in Relation to Adolescent Development',
  205. (1929). Sex in the Adolescent Girl',
  206. (1990). Sex, Death and Punishment: Attitudes to Sex and Sexuality
  207. (1989). Sex, Politics and Society:
  208. (1939). Sexual Difficulties in Childhood',
  209. (1989). Sexual Visions: Images of Gender
  210. (1995). Sexuality and Citizenship: the State and Girls' Leisure Provision in England, 1939-45',
  211. (1999). Sexuality and Women with Learning Disabilities
  212. (1992). Shaping Up to Womanhood: Gender and Girls' Physical Education
  213. (1619). Sir Arthur, `Some Aspects of Social Hygiene' in National Council for Combating Venereal Disease,
  214. (1996). Sisterhood or Surveillance? The Development of Working Girls' Clubs in London 1880-1939', (PhD thesis,
  215. (1996). So Much Money and So Little to Spend It On": Morale, Consumption and Sexuality',
  216. (1940). Social Aspects of Crime
  217. (1949). Social Biology and Welfare (London,
  218. (1929). Social Hygiene Council,
  219. (1926). Social Hygiene Council, Foundations of Social Hygiene (London,
  220. (1933). Social Hygiene Council, Sex Education and the Parent (London,
  221. (1986). Social Hygiene in Twentieth Century
  222. (1936). Social Hygiene To-day (London,
  223. (1992). Social Motherhood and the Sexual Communion of Labour in
  224. (1935). Social Organisations for Adolescent Girls'
  225. (1938). Social Service in the Clinic for Venereal Diseases (London,
  226. (1935). Social Work in Regard to Mothers and Children Suffering from Venereal Diseases', excerpt from
  227. (1932). Studies in the Psychology of Delinquency (London,
  228. (1997). Suffrage and Power: the Women's Movement 1918-1928
  229. (1992). Tackling the "Hideous Scourge": the Creation of the Venereal Disease Treatment Centres in Early Twentieth-Century Britain,
  230. (2000). Teaching Sex: The Shaping of Adolescence in the 20`h Century (Cambridge,
  231. Testament of Youth: An
  232. (1900). The "Girl Problem ": Female Sexual Delinquency in
  233. (1911). The Adolescent (London,
  234. (1930). The Age of the Dream Palace: Cinema and Society
  235. (1921). The Care of the Adolescent Girl: A Book for Teachers, Parents, and Guardians (London,
  236. (1926). The Causes of Sex-Delinquency in Girls',
  237. (1986). The Character Factory: Baden-Powell and the Origins of the Boy Scout Movement (London,
  238. (1991). The Children of the Poor: Representations of Childhood Since the Seventeeth Century
  239. (1930). The Contribution of Psychology to Present-Day Problems: II. The Young Adult',
  240. (1926). The Contribution of Psychology to Social Hygiene',
  241. (1978). The Crime of Precocious Sexuality: Female Juvenile Delinquency in the Progressive Era',
  242. (1990). The De-Eroticization of Women's Liberation: Social Purity Movements and the Revolutionary Feminism of Sheila Jeffreys',
  243. (1926). The Definition and Diagnosis of Moral Imbecility,
  244. (1991). The Deluge: British Society and the First World War (Basingstoke, 2nd ed.,
  245. (1912). The Early Discovery of Freud by the British General Educated Public,
  246. (1994). The English Have Hot-Water Bottles": The Morganatic Marriage of Medicine and Sexology in Britain since William Acton'
  247. (1986). The Englishwoman'
  248. (1995). The Facts of Life: The Creation of Sexual Knowledge
  249. (1987). The Female Malady: Women,
  250. (1960). The First Fifty Years (London,
  251. (1995). The First Teenagers: The Lifestyle of Young Wage-Earners
  252. (1980). The Fust Official Psychologist in the Wurrld": Aspects of the Professionalization of Psychology in Early TwentiethCentury Britain',
  253. (1920). The Girl (London,
  254. (1962). The Good News: Some Sidelights on the Strange Story of Sex Education
  255. (1980). The History of Sexuality: Volume 1: An Introduction
  256. (1935). The Illegitimate Child: A Challenge to Society (London,
  257. (1986). The Imprisonment of Women
  258. (1997). The Issue of Never-Married Motherhood in
  259. (1940). The Liverpool Boys' Association and the Liverpool Union of Youth Clubs: Youth Organizations and Gender,
  260. The Long Weekend, a Social History of
  261. (1992). The Luckless Waifs and Strays of Humanity": Irish and Jewish Immigrant Unwed Mothers in London, 1870-1939',
  262. (1990). The Magdalenes: Prostitution in the Nineteenth Century (London,
  263. (1985). The Making and Breaking of a Female Tradition: Women's Physical Education in England 1880-1980',
  264. (1931). The Mastery of Sex Through Psychology and Religion (London,
  265. (1913). The Mental Deficiency Act,
  266. (1923). The Moral Training of Modern Girls'
  267. (1997). The Mothers of Our Soldiers' Children": Motherhood, Immorality, and the War Baby Scandal, 1914-18', in Claudia Nelson
  268. (1996). The Mysteries and Secrets of Women's Bodies: Sexual Knowledge in the First Half of the Twentieth Century'
  269. (1939). The Needs of Youth: a Report Made to King George's Jubilee Trust Fund (London,
  270. (1995). The New Girl: Girls' Culture in England,
  271. (1981). The Pioneer Spirit
  272. (1900). The Politics of Motherhood: Child and Maternal Welfare in England,
  273. (1988). The Politics of Sexual Difference: World War 1 and the Demise of British Feminism',
  274. (1980). The Politics of Youth Clubs
  275. (1998). The Problem of "Youth" for Youth Work',
  276. (1924). The Problem of the Adolescent Girl'
  277. (1985). The Psychological Complex: Psychology, Politics and Society in England 1869-1939
  278. (1927). The Psychology of Childhood: Normal and Abnormal (London,
  279. (1983). The Pursuit of Married Love: Women's Attitudes Toward Sexuality and Marriage in Great Britain, 1918-1939',
  280. (1994). The Real Facts of Life: Feminism and the Politics of Sexuality c1850-1940
  281. The Referendum Movement 1918-1920, unpublished papers.
  282. (1928). The Revolt of Modern Youth
  283. (1991). The Rhetoric of Eugenics: Expert Authority and the Mental Deficiency Bill,
  284. (1990). The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929
  285. (1927). The Scientific Basis of Character Training'
  286. (1930). The Sex Factor in Marriage: a Book for Those Who Are or Are About to be Married (London, 1937,1 s`
  287. (1918). The Shield: A Review of Moral and Social Hygiene,
  288. (1929). The Social Worker in the Venereal Disease Scheme', in British Social Hygiene Council, Imperial Social Hygiene Congress,
  289. (1985). The Spinster and Her Enemies: Feminism and Sexuality 1880-1930
  290. (1925). The Sub-Normal School-Child: Volume One, the Young Delinquent (London, 1927,1 s`
  291. (1912). The Task of Social Hygiene (London,
  292. (1918). The Teaching of Young Children and Girls as to Reproduction: for Parents (London, 1937,1S`
  293. (1979). The Times Newspaper, Obituaries from The Times 1951-60
  294. (1923). The Unadjusted Girl, with Cases and Standpoint for Behavior Analysis
  295. (1936). The Unmarried Mother: a Few Notes for Student Health Visitors (London,
  296. (1918). The Unmarried Mother: a Study of Five Hundred Cases (London,
  297. (1933). The Unstable Adolescent Girl' (Not the Mental Defective)',
  298. (1992). The Urban, the Domestic and Education for Girls',
  299. (1924). The Venereal Clinic in its Relationship to the Treatment of Women and Children'
  300. (1982). The Victorian Girl and the Feminine Ideal (London,
  301. (1926). The Views of a Medical Officer of Health'
  302. (2001). The Worst Girl Has At Least 5 Per Cent Good in Her": the Work of the Girl Guides and the YWCA with "difficult" girls during the Inter-War Period',
  303. (1986). The Young Women's Christian Association of Great Britain, 1900-1925 - an Organisation of Change'
  304. (1999). These Viragoes Are No Less Cruel than the Lads": Young Women, Gangs and Violence in Late Victorian Manchester and Salford',
  305. (1938). They Always Come Back'
  306. (1990). They had Such a Lot of Fun: The Women's League of Health and Beauty Between the Wars',
  307. (1988). They Worked All Their Lives: Women of the Urban Poor in England, 1880-1939
  308. (1925). Third Report on the Work of the Children's Branch (London,
  309. (1984). Time, the Subtle Thief of Youth": Historians and Youth',
  310. (1915). Towards Racial Health: A Handbook for Parents,
  311. (1935). Towards Sex
  312. (1999). Twentieth-Century Sexuality: A History
  313. Twenty-One Years and After,
  314. (1997). Under the Guidance of a Wise Mother": British Sex Education at the Fin de Siecle',
  315. (1998). Understanding Youth and Crime: Listening to Youth
  316. (1993). Uniting Science and Sensibility: Marie Stopes and the Narratives of Marriage in the 1920s'
  317. (1995). Unstable Bodies: Victorian Representations of Sexuality and Maternity
  318. (1994). Venereal Disease, Sexual Morality, and Public Health in Interwar Scotland',
  319. (1992). We Didn't Know Aught': a Study of Sexuality, Superstition and Death
  320. (1932). What is Sex? An Outline for Young People (London,
  321. (1932). What We Put
  322. (1992). Whom God Hath Joined Together': the Work of Marriage Guidance
  323. (1992). Wishes, Anxieties, Play and Gestures: Child Guidance in Inter-war England',
  324. (1998). Women and Abortion in 1930s Britain: A Survey and its Data,
  325. (1997). Women and Childbirth in the Twentieth Century: A History of the National Birthday Trust Fund 1928-93
  326. (1996). Women and Citizenship: a Study of Non-feminist Women's Societies and the Women's Movement in England, 1928-1950' (PhD thesis,
  327. (1995). Women and Eugenics in Britain: the Case of Mary Scharlieb,
  328. (1995). Women and Popular Literature',
  329. (1995). Women and Sexuality',
  330. (1991). Women and Social Action in Victorian and Edwardian
  331. (1988). Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs
  332. (1992). Women and the Women's Movement in Britain 1914-1959
  333. (1990). Women Assemble: Women Workers and the New Industries in Inter-War
  334. (1984). Women in England 1870-1950: Sexual Divisions and Social Change
  335. (1993). Women Prisoners and Women Penal Officials 1840-1921',
  336. (1996). Working with Girls and Young Women
  337. (1994). Working-Class Cultures
  338. (1999). Youth and Crime: A Critical Introduction (London,
  339. (1974). Youth and History: Tradition and Change
  340. (1935). Youth and Leisure: A Survey of Girls'
  341. (1913). Youth and Sex: Dangers and Safeguards for Girls and Boys (London,
  342. (1920). Youth and the Race: The Development and Education of Young Citizens for Worthy Parenthood [Being the Fourth Report of and the Chief Evidence Taken by the National Birth-Rate Commission,
  343. (1984). Youth Service Provision, Social Order and the Question of Girls',
  344. (1957). Youth Will Be Led: The Story of the Voluntary Youth Organisations (London,
  345. (1999). Youth Workers as Controllers',
  346. (1977). Youth, Empire and Society: British Youth Movements,
  347. (1916). YWCA Homes for Working Girls in London, Annual Reports,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.