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Risk factors for human T cell lymphotropic virus type I among injecting drug users in northeast Brazil: possibly greater efficiency of male to female transmission.

By Inês Dourado, Tarcísio Andrade, Catherine L Carpenter and Bernardo Galvão Castro Filho


It was observed in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, the highest seroprevalence of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) infection in Brazil as demonstrated by national wide blood bank surveys. In this paper, we report results of an investigation of drug use and sexual behavior associated with HTLV-I infection among male and female injecting drug users (IDUs) in Salvador. A cross sectional study was conducted in the Historical District of Salvador from 1994-1996 (Projeto Brasil-Salvador) and 216 asymptomatic IDUs were selected using the snowball contact technique. Blood samples were collected for serological assays. Sera were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1/2) and HTLV-I/II antibodies by ELISA and confirmed by Western blot. The overall prevalence of HTLV-I/II was 35.2% (76/216). The seroprevalence of HTLV-I, HTLV-II and HIV-I was for males 22%, 11.3% and 44.1% and for females 46.2%, 10.3% and 74.4% respectively. HTLV-I was identified in 72.4% of HTLV positive IDUs. Variables which were significantly associated with HTLV-I infection among males included needle sharing practices, duration of injecting drug use, HIV-I seropositivity and syphilis. Among women, duration of injecting drug use and syphilis were strongly associated with HTLV-I infection. Multivariate analysis did not change the direction of these associations. Sexual intercourse might play a more important role in HTLV-I infection among women than in men

Topics: Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I/II (HTLV-I/II), Human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1), Injecting drug use, Snowball sampling, Bahia, Brazil, Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia, Infecções por HTLV-I/transmissão, Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações, Adolescente, Adulto, Brasil, Estudos Transversais, Feminino, Humanos, Masculino, Prevalência, Fatores de Risco, Comportamento Sexual
Publisher: Fiocruz
Year: 1999
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