This thesis was undertaken to gain greater insights into ethnic collective action\ud (ECA). A review of the literature revealed five gaps; a narrow definition of ECA, a\ud failure to investigate ECA as an interactive process, a tendency to focus on external\ud structures, a limited acknowledgement of the importance of internal heterogeneity\ud and of intra-actions, and a lack of explanation of the role and importance of actors'\ud worldviews. My research challenged the gaps by proposing that ECA is not only an\ud outcome, but also part of an ongoing process. This thesis builds on elements of the\ud theoretical approaches used by some earlier scholars.\ud This study of ECA resulted from ethnographic fieldwork in Jordan for 10 months.\ud My research focused on two case study groups, the Circassian and Dom. In\ud addition, I gathered data about the setting and the interactions between Jordanian\ud society, government and voluntary sector organisations (VSO), and the two case\ud study groups. I argue that ethnography provided a methodological framework which\ud allowed me to gain insights into how different factors interact and impact on ECA.\ud This research makes empirical contributions concerning the situation of\ud Circassians and Dom in Jordan as well as some general theoretical conclusions\ud regarding ECA. The research revealed that ECA is a dynamic and complex process\ud which is affected by numerous factors that do not directly impact on ECA processes,\ud but instead it is the interaction and relationships between these factors that impact\ud on ECA. The main factors involved in understanding the interactions that affect ECA\ud were the level of inclusion extended by external actors to members of the two case\ud study groups, state policies and programmes, the case study groups' levels of\ud cohesion and leadership and the worldviews of external and internal actors
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