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Temporal assessment of the physical properties of a constructed soil in a coal mining area restored with perennial gramineae

By Rafaela Costa de CASTRO

Abstract

A Regi??o de Candiota concentra a maior reserva carbon??fera brasileira, conhecida como a jazida Grande Candiota. Nesta localidade o carv??o encontra-se pr??ximo ?? superf??cie, sendo minerado a c??u aberto. Este m??todo de lavra envolve a retirada dos horizontes A e/ou B do solo original, seguida de remo????o das rochas, com posterior reposi????o dos est??reis nas cavas abertas. Os est??reis s??o nivelados por trator de esteira e h?? a reposi????o da camada superficial do solo original, finalizando o processo de constru????o do solo. Este processo acarreta em uma grande compacta????o, gerada pelo tr??fego intenso e repetido de equipamentos pesados sobre a ??rea, podendo restringir o estabelecimento da vegeta????o por longos per??odos. Os impactos causados pela recomposi????o topogr??fica da ??rea refletem-se nos atributos f??sicos do solo constru??do, estando diretamente relacionados ?? estrutura, sendo os primeiros efeitos negativos a serem observados os valores de densidade elevados e a desproporcionalidade entre micro e macroporos. O uso de plantas que atuam como descompactadoras do solo constitui-se importante estrat??gia na recupera????o da qualidade estrutural de solo. Tendo em vista o exposto, o objetivo geral do trabalho foi analisar o potencial de diferentes plantas de cobertura na recupera????o de ??reas degradadas pela minera????o de carv??o, atrav??s da determina????o de par??metros f??sicos do solo constru??do, ao longo do tempo. Foram analisados os tratamentos com gram??neas perenes de ver??o, implantadas em novembro/dezembro de 2003: T1 - Hem??rtria (Hemarthria alt??ssima), T4 - Pensacola (Paspalum notatum), T5 - Grama Tifton (Cynodon dactilon), T7- Braqui??ria brizanta (Brachiaria brizantha). Como testemunha usou-se o solo constru??do sem plantas de cobertura SCSP, no intuito de observar a a????o das plantas na recupera????o dos atributos do solo constru??do. Como conclus??es gerais pode-se dizer que ap??s seis anos de execu????o do experimento observa-se a recupera????o inicial dos indicadores f??sicos do solo constru??do, se comprovando a efici??ncia das gram??neas perenes em recuperar a estrutura dos solos constru??dos ao longo do tempo. PalavrasThe Candiota region has the largest coal reserve in Brazil, known as the Big Candiota deposit. In this locality the coal lies near the surface, being open-pit mining. This method of extraction involves removing the horizons A and / or B of the original soil, followed by removal of rocks with subsequent replacement of sterile armholes open. The sterile are leveled by bulldozer and is the replacement of topsoil original, finalizing the construction process from the ground. This process entails a large compression generated by intense and repeated traffic of heavy equipment over the area, restricting the establishment of vegetation for long periods. The impacts caused by the topographic reconstruction of the area are reflected in soil physical built, being directly related to the structure, being the density values and high disproportionality between micro and macropores the first negative effects to be observed. The use of plants that act as soil decompressor is an important strategy in recovering the structural quality of soil. The aim of the study was to analyze the potential of differentcover crops on reclamation by coal mining, through the determination of physical parameters of soil built over time. Treatments were analyzed with perennial grasses of summer, implanted in November / December 2003: T1 - Hem??rtria (Hemarthria alt??ssima), T4 - Pensacola (Paspalum notatum), T5 - Grama Tifton (Cynodon dactilon), T7- Braqui??ria brizanta (Brachiaria brizantha). As a control the ground built without cover crops was used SCSP, in order to observe the action of the plants in the recovery of built soil attributes. As general conclusions, after six years of experiment, the initial recovery of physical indicators of built soil was observed, proving the efficiency of perennial grasses to rehabilitate structure of soil built along the time

Topics: densidade do solo, porosidade total, agrega????o, plantas de cobertura., bulk density, total porosity, aggregation, cover crops, CNPQ::CIENCIAS AGRARIAS::AGRONOMIA
Publisher: Universidade Federal de Pelotas
Year: 2012
OAI identifier: oai:agregador.ibict.br.RI_UFPEL:oai:repositorio.ufpel.edu.br:123456789/1149
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