Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Child care career patterns : an exploration of the experiences of black and white children

By Ravinder Barn


The focus of this thesis is on the care career patterns\ud of black children. Empirical findings of the research\ud are analysed in the light of existing literature.\ud Particular attention is directed towards the decision-making\ud role of field social workers. The study examined\ud the perceptions of the principal individuals associated\ud with the care process (namely field social workers,\ud natural parents and children).\ud A cohort group of 564 children were found to be in\ud the care of Wenford Social Services Department (294\ud black and 270 white) . The care careers of these\ud children were explored. A follow-up study conducted six\ud months after the initial inquiry was part of this\ud process. Also, a sub-group of 80 children (who had been\ud admitted into care within the previous six months) were\ud examined in depth. Here, interviews with the principal\ud individuals were conducted to gain their perception of\ud the situation. Both the cohort and the sub-group\ud included children of all ages and all legal routes of\ud entry. In the sub-group, restrictive criterion liable\ud to bias results was applied in that only children who\ud had been admitted into care in the previous six months\ud were selected\ud The study attempted to analyse the similarities\ud and differences in the treatment of black and white\ud children in the public care system. Results shed new\ud light on the situation of black children and suggest\ud that due to individual and institutional racism within\ud the personal social services, black families and\ud children receive a poor service

Topics: HT, HV
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1970) 1 "Colour" as a variable in the use made of a Local Authority Child Care Department',
  2. (1981). (ed) Black Families,
  3. (1978). (ed) West African Families in Britain. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  4. (1960). (eds) Human Organisation Research, Field Relations and Techniques,
  5. (1985). (eds) Social Research: Princi2les and Procedures., Milton Keynes:
  6. (1981). 346 Commission for Racial Equality, EEC Labour Force Survey
  7. (1983). 354 office of Population Censuses and Surveys
  8. (1979). A
  9. (1975). A Comparison by Colour of boys in a Classifying School',
  10. (1982). A cycle of Denrivation? A Case Study 2f Four Families,
  11. (1967). A Report on
  12. (1985). A Study of Interim Care Orders. School of Applied Social Studies,
  13. (1975). A Study of Juvenile Delinquency amongst Asians and HalfAsians',
  14. (1987). A Study pff Black Young People Leaving Care.
  15. (1983). Adoption and Race.
  16. (1970). Adoption of Non-White Children in Britain. London: Allen and Unwin.
  17. (1977). Adoption: & Second Chance.
  18. (1973). af English Racism.
  19. (1989). Aliens and Alienists,
  20. (1982). Aliens and Alienists.
  21. (1988). Anti-Racist Social Work. London: Macmillan/British Association of SocialýWorkers.
  22. (1979). Antonio Gramsci, and the Party, the Prison Years, London: Lawrence and Wishart.
  23. (1981). Asian Girls and Culture Conflict'
  24. (1983). Association of Black Social Workers and Allied professions,
  25. (1983). Association of Directors of Social Services
  26. (1987). Association of Social Workers
  27. (1976). Association, o_t British Adoption and Fostering Agencies,
  28. (1961). Asylums: Essays pjl the Social Situation gf Mental Patienis and Other Inmates,
  29. (1977). Attitudes A Summary of the Research Social Studies,
  30. (1971). Blac British. White British. London: Eyre
  31. (1977). Blac Children ill Approved Schools,
  32. (1974). Blac Children, White Parents: A Study of Transracial Adoption.
  33. (1984). Black and White Britain.. London: HEB/Policy Studies Institute.
  34. (1990). Black children in local authority care: admission patterns',
  35. (1979). Black Children, in Care: -A Summary Report of a Feasibility Study undertaken for the Association of British Adoption and Fostering Agencies and the Runnymede Trust, London: Allen and Unwin.
  36. (1989). Black Identity and Transracial Adoption*,
  37. (1974). Black People and the Social Services Departments, Problems and Perspectives,
  38. (1982). Black Social Workers in White Departments',
  39. (1974). Blacks and Social Work, New Society,
  40. (1984). Blacks in the Criminal Justice System, Unpublished MSc thesis,
  41. (1975). Britain"s Black Citizens: A Comparative Study of Social Work with Coloured Families and their White Indigenous Neighbourl, Social Work Today.
  42. (1988). Britain"s Black Population: New Perspective, 2nd edition,
  43. (1985). British Association of Social Workers
  44. (1981). British Social Services, Macdonald and Evans.
  45. (1986). But My Cows aren't Going to England.
  46. (1983). Campaign Against Racism and Fascism (CARF)
  47. (1980). Can Social Work Survive,
  48. (1980). Captive Clients, London: Routledge
  49. (1985). CareV, The Guardian, 2nd Dec. Tr iseliotis,
  50. (1980). Cheerleaders and Ombudsmen: the Sociology of Race Relations in Britain',
  51. (1981). Child Abuse, Social Anxiety and Welfare',
  52. (1989). Childrearing in a Multicultural Society, ', in W. Stainton Rogers and E. Ash (eds) Child Abuse and Neglect.
  53. (1986). Children 'being needlessly into care' The Guradian.
  54. (1981). Children in Care. The Racial Dimension in Social Work Assessment,
  55. (1981). Children in Local Authority Care: A Monitoring of Racial Differences in Bradford', Policy And Politics,
  56. (1973). Children, Who Wait. London: Association of British Adoption Agencies.
  57. (1988). Children's GRE Research: Children Entering Care. & need indicator for in-care services for children, Discussion Paper No.
  58. (1985). Children"s Homes,
  59. (1976). Citizenship and Nationality, London: Runnymede Trust.
  60. (1986). Citizenship, Social Work and Ethnic Minorities', S. Etherington (ed) Social Work and Citizenship, Birmingham: British Association of Social Workers.
  61. (1979). Colonial Immigrants in British City: A Class Analysis. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  62. (1969). Colour and Citizenship: A ReDort on British Race Relations_, _ London:
  63. (1979). Colour as a variable in the Childrens* Section - of a Local Authority Social Services Department',
  64. (1974). Coloured Children in Long Term Care. Unpublished Report,
  65. (1974). Coloured Families and Social Services Departments. Research Report,
  66. (1985). Commission for Racial Equality
  67. (1989). Commission for Racial Equality,
  68. (1978). Commission for Racial Equality/Association of Directors of Social Services
  69. (1981). Common Sense. Racism and the Sociology of Race Relations, Centre for Contemporary Cultural studies, Stencilled Occasional Paper,
  70. (1982). Contemporary Cultural studies, (CCCS)
  71. (1980). Control and Idelogy in Orcranisations, Milton Keynes:
  72. (1942). Counselling _qn_d Psychotherapy:, Newer Cocepts in Practice,
  73. (1981). Crime, Social Problems and Asian Immigration: The Bradford Experience',
  74. (1970). Crime. Police andýRace Relations, London:
  75. (1984). Decision Making in statutory Reviews on Children in Care.
  76. (1983). Defective " Hypocritical and Patronising Research',
  77. (1979). Demystifying Social Statistics,
  78. (1987). Denying Homes to Black Children: Britain's New Race Policies.,, Social Affairs Unit,
  79. (1982). Directorate of Social Services
  80. (1988). Doing Secondary Analysis. London: Allen and Unwin.
  81. (1984). Doing Social Work Research', Research.. Policy and Planning.
  82. (1977). Doing Sociological Research, London: Allen and Unwin.
  83. (1982). Encountering Diversity: Observations on the Social Work Assessment of Black Children.
  84. (1979). Ethnic Minorities and the Social Services: What type of Service?
  85. (1978). Ethnic Origin, the search for a question', Population Trends.
  86. (1976). Family Experiences of Inter-Racial Ado]2tion. London: Association of British Adoption Agencies.
  87. (1972). Far from the Reservation: The Transracial Adoption af American Indian Children.
  88. (1982). Field Research, A Sourcebook and Field Manual. London: Allen and Unwin.
  89. (1981). Fifth Report from the Home Affairs Committee, Session 1980-1981,
  90. (1982). Finding Black Families for Black Children in Britain'
  91. (1978). From immigration control to induced repatriation',
  92. (1979). Gramsci and Marxist Thought. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  93. (1980). Gramsci and the State. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
  94. (1976). Gramsci'S Marxism,
  95. (1980). Gramscifs Philosophy: A Critical study,
  96. (1982). Gramscils Political Thought. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
  97. (1984). Gramscils Relevance to the Analysis of Racism and Ethnicity. for UNESCO, Division of Human Rights, and Peace.
  98. (1985). Health and Social Security
  99. Health and Social Security, Children jjj Care. Government Response ]Lo- The Second Report From The Social Services Committee. Session 1983-84.
  100. (1983). Health and Social Security, Code of Practice. Access to Children in Care.
  101. (1984). House of Commons Social Services Committee
  102. (1968). Identity, Youth and Crisis.
  103. (1985). Ideology and Social Welfare. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  104. (1969). Immigrants - part two - in Britain', Child Care,
  105. (1977). Immigrants' Knowledge and Experience Of Social Work Services', Mental Health and Society.
  106. (1986). In and Out of Care. London: Bats ford/ British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering.
  107. (1986). In Care Study of Social Work Decision Making, _ London: National Children's Fu--reau.
  108. (1978). Inner Areas: An Ethnic Dimension? *. Discussion Paper to CES Workshop.
  109. (1985). Inquiry Report
  110. (1978). Inside the Whale: Ten Personal Accounts of Social Research7.
  111. (1982). ISchooling in Babylon,,
  112. (1986). Jasmine case team *feared racism claim' The Guardian,
  113. (1986). Key Variables in Social Research, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  114. (1971). Knowledge From What? Theories and Methods in Social Research.
  115. (1977). Language ja the Inner-City. Studies in the, Black English Vernacular.
  116. (1986). Leaving Care.
  117. (1984). Long Term Foster Care. London: Batsford/British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering.
  118. (1983). Long Term Placement for the Black Child in Care. Social Work Monograph 15,
  119. (1986). Lost in Care. The Problems of Maintaining Links between Children in Care and their Families. Dartington Social Research Unit,
  120. (1979). Minority Families in Britain: Support and Stress.
  121. (1981). Mixed race children: an exploratory study of racial categorisation and identity',
  122. (1977). Mixed-Families:, Adoption Across Racial Boundaries,
  123. (1982). Mothers and Daughters.
  124. (1983). No Problems',
  125. (1963). Non-European Children in Care,, Child Care Ouarterly Review.
  126. (1980). Notes on Racism in Social Work Practice', Multi Racial Social Work.
  127. (1981). Occupational survival.
  128. (1983). of Health and Social Security
  129. (1973). Parenting in Poverty,,,
  130. (1954). Patterns of Industrial Bureaucracy.
  131. (1983). Penelope Hall"s Social Services of England and Wales. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  132. (1988). Percentage of Husbands and Wives Married to White Persons: by Ethnic Group and Age', Social Trends, vol 18,
  133. (1989). Plea to Mellor in Mixed Race Adoption Row',
  134. (1978). Policing the crisis: Mugging, the State, and Law and Order,
  135. (1982). Policy Dile=as and the Adoption of Black Children"
  136. (1984). Political Parties -and Blac People. London: Runnymede Trust.
  137. (1982). Positive Discrimination in social Work: Negotiating the Opposition',
  138. (1981). Probation and After Care in a MultiRacial Society.
  139. (1982). Professional Power and Social Welfare. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  140. (1972). Professions and Power.
  141. (1988). Putting Children First.
  142. (1986). Putting the Children First', The Voice,
  143. (1986). Race and Ethnicity. Milton Keynes:
  144. (1976). Race, Class and the State',
  145. (1982). Race, Culture and Mental Disorder,
  146. (1981). Race. 'Class A13c Political Activism: A Study 2_f West Indians in Britain,
  147. (1967). Race. Communit §jjC YConflict. London:
  148. (1913). Racial Assimilation in Secondary Groups with Particular Reference to the Negro, ', Publication -to _the'
  149. (1968). Racial Discrimination in England.
  150. (1975). Racial Discrimination. Cmnd 6234,
  151. (1966). Racial Inteqration and Barnardols: Report of a Working Party,
  152. (1982). Racism and Migrant Labour..
  153. (1981). Racism and Reaction. A profile of Handsworth. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  154. (1978). Racism and Reaction', in commission for Racial Equality, Five Views of Multi-Racial
  155. (1986). Racism, Prejudice and Mental Illness, ',
  156. (1978). Radicals in Social Work. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  157. (1976). Realities of Social Research,
  158. (1968). Report of the Committee gn Local Authority and Allied Personal social Services, Cmnd 3703,
  159. (1947). Report p1l the Social Workers,
  160. (1987). Research Design: Strategies and Choices in the Design of Social Research. London: Allen and Unwin.
  161. (1987). Review and Consolidation in Brent Social Services, Centre for the Analysis of Social Policy,
  162. (1971). Selections, from Antonio Gramsci. London:
  163. (1981). Social and CommunitY Work in A Multi-Racial Society..
  164. (1981). Social Services Provision in MultiRacial Areas, London: Policy Studies Institute.
  165. (1988). Social Services' in
  166. (1957). Social Theory and Social Structure,
  167. (1981). Social Welfare and the Failure of the State, London: Allen and Unwin.
  168. (1982). Social Work and Ethnicity. London: Allen and Unwin.
  169. (1987). Social Work in A Multiý Racial Society..
  170. (1978). Social Work Practice under Capitalism: A Marxist Approach,
  171. (1981). Social Work Services for Ethnic Minorities
  172. (1972). Social Work with Children, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  173. (1980). Social Work with Ethnic Minorities: A Review of the Literature',
  174. (1972). Social Work with Immigrants. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  175. (1985). Social Work. and Social Philosophv, -A Guide for Practice, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  176. (1987). Social Work. Social Care and Social Planning: The Personal Social Services Since Seebohm,
  177. (1981). Social Workers and Solicitors in Child Care Cases,
  178. (1986). Social Workers and their Practice in Welfare Bureaucracies.
  179. (1965). Society and the Adolescent SelfImaqe.
  180. (1978). Sociological Explorations in the Service of Youth.
  181. (1984). Sociological Research.
  182. (1969). Sociology Today: Lacunae, Emphasis and Surfeiting,
  183. (1988). State Care = Some Children's Alternatives. An Analysis of the Data from the Returns to the Department of Health. Child Care Division,
  184. (1983). State Social Work and the Working Class. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  185. (1975). Strategies of Social Research.
  186. (1980). Street Level Bureaucracy.
  187. (1985). Submission jo the Jasmine Beckford Tnauirv Report.
  188. (1985). Submission to the Jasmine Beckford Incruiry Report, London: British Association for Adoption and Fostering.
  189. (1984). Surveying Service Users.
  190. (1976). Tayori: Black homes for black children',
  191. (1983). The Administrative Parent =A study of the assumptions of parental rights and duties, London: British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering.
  192. (1977). The Adoption of Black Children,
  193. (1967). The Antecedents of Self-Esteem.
  194. (1986). The Beckford Report: A Critical Appraisal',
  195. (1986). The Black Perspective', Community Care.
  196. (1989). the Care and Resettlement of Offenders
  197. (1965). The Child. the Family and the Young Offender.
  198. (1981). The Child's Generation, 2nd edition,
  199. (1970). The Client Speaks, Working Class Impressions of Casework, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  200. (1989). The Colonial Legacy and its ImDact on Black Psychology in _th_e Western World. Unpublished, Inner-City Mental Health Team,
  201. (1971). The Condition of the Working class in England.
  202. (1988). The Court Disposal of Young Males, by Race, in London in
  203. (1984). The Crisis in Adoption', International-
  204. (1988). The Development of Social Work Practice and Policies on Race', Social Work Today,
  205. (1982). The Dilemmas and Contributions of Black Social Workers',
  206. (1957). The Dynamics of Interviewing. Theory, Techniague and Cases.
  207. (1981). The Education of the black child in Britain: The Myth pf Multiracial Education.
  208. (1983). The Education ot Children'-in Care, Paper for Economic and Social Research Council.
  209. (1985). The Employment of Black Social Workers: From Ethnic Sensitivity to Anti-Racism,,
  210. (1977). the Environment
  211. (1973). The Expansioll 2_f Social work in Britain. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  212. (1976). The Facts of Racial Disadvantage. London: Political and Economic Planning.
  213. (1982). The Foundation of_ the Welfare State.
  214. (1975). The Implementation of Section 56 of the Children Act
  215. (1973). The Institutional isation of Racism',
  216. (1964). The Last Refuge, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  217. (1971). The logic of science in sociology',
  218. (1959). The Logic of Scientific Discovery.
  219. (1969). The Logic of social Inquiry,
  220. (1985). The MethodolM af Elite Interviewing. London: Economic and social Research Council Myrdal,
  221. (1979). The Natural History of Child Abuse: A Study in Social problem Definition',
  222. (1986). The Operationalisation of Identity Theory in Racial and Ethnic Relations",
  223. (1978). The Politics of Positive Discrimination in England.
  224. (1982). The politics of race-in Britain, 1962-79: a review of the major trends and of recent debates',
  225. (1965). The Poor and the Poorest, Occasional Paper on Social Administration, no 17, London: Bell and Sons.
  226. (1957). The Poverty of Historicism. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  227. (1978). The Power of the Street Level Bureaucrat in Public Service Bureaucracies', Urban Affairs Quarterly.
  228. (1954). The Problem of the Coloured Child: The Experience of the National Children's Home', Child Care Quarterly.
  229. (1983). The Protection of Children: state Intervention and Family Life.
  230. (1985). The Race Dilemma in the Personal Social Services: -A Case Study 2-f- Wolverhampton'. Dissertation Submitted for the B. A (Hons) Sociology, City of Birmingham Polytechnic.
  231. (1987). The Research Relationship. Practice and Policy
  232. (1985). The Research Web",
  233. (1984). The Role of Labour in the creation of a Racist Britain', Race and Class,
  234. (1969). The social worker and culture conflict', Case Conference.
  235. (1972). The Social Worker"s Cultural Pattern as it Affects Casework with Immigrants',
  236. (1959). The Sociological Imagination.
  237. (1981). The System. London: Runnymede Trust , and South 'London Equal Rights Consultance Publications.
  238. (1979). The Theory of Power and Organisations. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  239. (1958). The Welfare of Coloured People in London,
  240. (1986). Theories -of Race and Ethnic Relations.
  241. (1987). There aint ]2o Black -in the Union Jack.
  242. (1973). Towards Immigrant Clients.
  243. (1979). Trans-Racial Adoption -
  244. (1986). Transcultural Psychiatry.
  245. (1977). Transracial Adoption,
  246. (1981). Transracial Adoption: & follow-un.
  247. (1988). Transracial, Adoption. Social Work Monograph 60,
  248. (1983). Trapped within Welfare..
  249. (1986). Varieties of Marxist conceptions of 'Race', Class and the State: A Critical Analysis',
  250. (1974). West Indian Boys in Community Home Schools',, Unpublished Thesis for the Diploma in the Educational Rehabilitation of Young People,
  251. (1967). West Indian Children In London. London: Bell and Sons.
  252. (1985). West Indian Families in Britain:
  253. (1954). What is wrong with Social Theory',
  254. (1986). When Backgrounds Clash'
  255. (1987). White children placed in black foster homes'. -Observer,
  256. (1986). Who Needs Care - Social Work Decisions about Children.
  257. (1987). Whose Child? The report of the panel appointed to inquire into the death of Tyra Henry, London: London Borough of Lambeth.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.