Concurrent sexual partnerships, a common form of sexual partnering in much of southern Africa, play an important role in HIV transmission dynamics. This study examines the prevalence of concurrency and condom use among the general population and a sample of HAART patients in Cape Town, South Africa. The prevalence of reported concurrency was relatively high among a sample of HAART patients and in the general population (24% and 18% respectively) and reported consistent condom use was significantly higher among HAART patients compared to the general population (58% versus 20%);? perceived concurrency among the study populations' sexual partners was higher among HAART patients (35% versus 20%). Individuals on HAART report higher and more consistent use of condoms than the general population but the prevalence of concurrent relationships remains worryingly high. Greater programmatic attention should be given to promoting risk awareness of and behaviour change around concurrency both in the general population and amongst people living with HIV
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