Researches and educators’ recognition of positive and negative effects of tests on teaching and learning activities goes back at least four decades. Although educators frequently claim that they do not want to teach to a test, the reality is that every educator wants his/her students to be successful. Decision makers, teachers, and students equate this success in large part with high test scores, resulting in classroom instruction that is reflective of test practices and/or expectations. The effect that testing has on teaching and instruction is a phenomenon referred to as washback. However, this phenomenon has been examined empirically by only a few studies in the field of language testing. This qualitative study aimed to (i) investigate the existence and nature of the washback effect, and (ii) examine the role of EEOU context in promoting beneficial washback. The findings confirmed the existence of washback phenomenon in general and negative washback effects of EEOU context on language teaching and learning in particular
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