<p>Combination of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery is the basic treatment for locally advanced rectal tumors. Despite that, a subgroup of patients does not benefit from combined treatment. A wide search of biological markers predicting neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy efficacy is currently conducted. Tumor cell signal pathways are investigated (EGFR, Wnt), cell cycle and apoptosis, tumor stroma. Several studies with DNA microarray analysis were conducted. Predictive value of these biological markers is reviewed in this article.</p
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