<p>Head and neck cancers, including thyroid carcinomas, are characterized by high risk of metastasizing in regional lymph nodes. Lymph nodes status determines treatment of thyroid cancer as well as disease prognosis. Excision of affected lymph nodes is associated with risk reduction of relapse and reduction of mortality. However surgical treatment can be associated with some difficulties. Due to technologic progress modern ultrasonographs offer the possibility to visualize minimal tumor nodes (5–10 mm), which are characterized with complexity of localization during surgical manipulation, particularly in patients with relapses, that previously passed treatment (surgery and/or radiation therapy). These lymph nodes can be missed during surgical treatment, which will lead to reduction of treatment efficacy. The paper details utility of intraoperative ultrasound investigation as a method of obtaining information about localization of nonpalpable tumor nodes, cancer extension, reduction the possibility of non-radical surgical treatment and unnecessary extension of surgical treatment in patients with thyroid cancers, characterized with regional lymph nodes involvement.</p
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